This section is from the book "Experimental Cookery From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint", by Belle Lowe. Also available from Amazon: Experimental cookery.
Prepare one-quarter or one-half of the recipe.
1. Combine all the ingredients and stir while cooking to prevent scorching. Cook to 121 °C. and turn into a buttered pan very quickly, taking care not to scrape the contents of the cooking pan with the spoon while pouring the caramel mixture. Do not try to drain the last of the contents of the cooking pan into the cooling pan. When cool enough, cut into squares with scissors or a knife.
2. Combine all the ingredients but reserve two-thirds of the milk. Cook until quite thick, about 119°C.; then add half of the remaining milk so slowly that the mixture does not stop boiling. Cook until the sirup becomes thick again; then add the remainder of the milk slowly. When the temperature reaches 121°C, remove from the fire and follow directions under 1.
3. Repeat 2, but cook to 119°C.
4. Repeat 2, but use 1 1/2 cups of sugar and 1 1/2 cups of corn sirup. Cook to 118°C.
5. Follow directions under 2 for combining but use 1 cup of sugar and 2 cups of corn sirup. Cook to 116° to 117°C.
6. Substitute 1 cup of sorghum for the corn sirup. To what temperature does it need to be cooked to have the cold-water test the same firmness as in 3 ? Follow directions under 2 for combining and cook so that the caramels will be as firm as those under 3.
7. Repeat 6 but substitute strained honey for the sorghum.
8. Substitute 2 cups of cream for the 3 cups of milk. Omit the butter. Follow directions under 2 for combining. Add 1/8 teaspoon salt. Cook to 119°C.
9. Reduce the milk to 2 cups and increase the butter to 1/2 cup. Follow directions under 2. Cook to 119°C.
10. Substitute 3/4 cup of evaporated milk for the 3 cups of milk. Follow directions under 1. Cook to 119°C.
11. Substitute 1 cup of water for the 3 cups of milk. Follow directions under 1 for combining. Cook to 119°C.
12. Add 2 squares of chocolate (56 grams) to the recipe. Follow directions under 2 for combining. Cook to 119°C.
Cold-water test for caramels. The caramels are cooked sufficiently when a portion of the sirup dropped in cold water is as firm as that wished in the finished caramel. If small quantities of ingredients are used in making caramels, it is difficult to use a thermometer for the stirring of the viscous sirup pulls and piles it up against the thermometer. The viscosity of the solution also seems to have a tendency to hold in for a few seconds some of the steam formed. Thus it is difficult to secure accurate readings, the temperature fluctuating considerably.
Wrap portions of each of the caramels and store until the following class period. Do any of them crystallize? Do the larger proportions of corn sirup keep better? Do any with the small proportions of corn sirup crystallize? When the proportions of the ingredients of the recipe are changed is the temperature as indicated by the thermometer or the cold-water test a better indication that the sirup is the right concentration for removing from the fire? Can smaller quantities of milk be used?
Temperature cooked to