The meat should be bright red after standing, but it will be purplish red if recently cut. It should be fine-grained, firm, and the lean well-mottled with fat. Coarse, flabby, dark beef is poor meat; if it lacks fat, it is underfed or old.
Young veal is generally excluded from market; that from an animal about two months old is considered best. The meat is much paler than beef, and shows no mottling of the lean with fat. It should be pinkish and fine-grained.
1. Neck. 6. Ribs.
2. Chuck. 7. Loin.
3. Shoulder. 8. Flank.
4. Fore shank. 9. Leg.
5. Breast. 10. Hind shank.
1. Neck. 4. Flank.
2. Chuck. 5. Loin.
3. Shoulder. 6. Leg.
This is from sheep at least three years old. It should be fine-grained and pinkish red with hard white fat.
Spring lamb is from an animal eight weeks to three months old. All lamb is less than a year old. The meat differs in color from mutton, but the two are more easily distinguished by the bone. In lamb, this is pinker and ridged or saw-like at the joint of the leg. In mutton, the bone is whiter and smoother and less ridged.
4. Middle cut.
The meat should be fine-grained and firm, and the fat should not be soft. The meat is very pale.
All meat requires constant care, as it spoils easily. It should be kept in a cool place and not left wrapped in paper. If placed directly on the ice, much juice is lost.
Meat which has become slightly tainted may be washed with water in which a little cooking soda has been dissolved.
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.
Farmers' Bulletin No. 39. "Economical Use of Meat in the Home." Farmers' Bulletin No. 34. "Meats: Composition and Cooking." Farmers' Bulletin No. 162. "Experiment Station Work," pp. 9-10.
1. Account for the yellow stain nitric acid leaves, if you spill it on your hands.
2. Does tender or tough meat contain more connective tissue?
3. If much-used muscle is tougher, which parts of a steer or sheep would you expect to find tough? Which tender?
4. Is tender or tough meat likely to be the more juicy?
5. For what reasons should meat be unwrapped before putting it away when it comes from market?
6. Why, before cooking, should meat be wiped with a damp cloth rather than washed?
7. Which food principle is practically absent in meat? Mention foods served with meat, which would be particularly adapted to make good the deficiency.