This section is from the book "Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery", by Mary E. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Elements Of The Theory And Practice Of Cookery; A Textbook Of Domestic Science For Use In Schools.
2. To save time and fuel, soak uncooked cereals (Irish oats, cracked wheat, hominy, etc.) in cold water before cooking. Those requiring more than one hour to cook should be cooked the day before they are to be eaten and reheated in the morning. If necessary to hasten the cooking of a cereal, boil it from fifteen to thirty minutes, then steam until done.
3. Cook steam-cooked cereals, as a rule, twice as long as is directed on the package. Only by long cooking are cereals made wholesome and well-flavored; undercooked, as most people eat them, they occasion sickness often laid to other causes.
4. Stir coarse, flaky cereals as little as possible. Fine, granular cereals may be beaten. To keep these fine cereals from lumping, mix them with cold water instead of sprinkling them dry into boiling water.
5. Cereals should absorb all the water they are cooked in; if too moist when nearly done, cook uncovered for a time.
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Office of Experiment Stations
A. C. True: Director
Prepared by C. F. Langworthy Expert in Charge of Nutrition Investigations
Composition Of Food Materials.
Cereals are the most important of vegetable foods. From the plains of northern Europe and Asia, where barley grows in a climate too cold for other grains, to the rice-fields of India and our Southern states, man depends on some cereal for his daily bread. One reason for this is that they contain in varying proportions all the kinds of foodstuffs necessary to support life. Containing so much starch as they do (50 to 75 %), they are valuable chiefly as fuel foods. Oatmeal and corn-meal have more fat than other grains, and so are especially good winter foods. Oatmeal is richer in food material, but on account of its indigestible fibre, less easily digestible, except for hard-working people, than other grains. Rice as commonly sold is almost pure starch.1 As it contains no fat, we eat butter or cream with it.