## Expenses Per Acre

 £ s. d. 1st year, Trenching 3 ft. deep ... 12 0 0 2nd ,, Digging 1 ft. deep .... 2 0 0 3rd ,, ,, ,, ,, ..... 2 0 0 4th ,, Double Digging 2 ft. ... 5 0 0 Hoeing twice each year at 25.s. 5 0 0 12 tons Manure each year at 5s. per ton = £3 ... 12 0 0 38 0 0 Balance 4th year ... 264 0 0 302 0 0

## Receipts Per Acre

 £ s. d. 160 bus. Grain = 20 qr. at £2 = 40 0 0 12 tons Straw at £2 = 24 0 0 176 bus. Grain = 22 qr. at £2 = 44 0 0 13 tons Straw at £2 = 26 0 0 192 bus. Grain = 24 qr. at £2 = 48 0 0 14 tons Straw at £2 = 28 0 0 240 bus. Grain = 30 qr. at £2 = 60 0 0 16 tons Straw at £2 = 32 0 0 302 0 0

To the average agricultural mind these figures may appear extraordinary. If, however, it is possible to obtain 5 qr. of wheat year after year merely by scuffling over the ground to a depth of 6 in., there is nothing very remarkable in obtaining four and five times as great returns from soil that has been deeply tilled, well manured, and thinly sown. After all an average turn over of £75 10s. per acre is much better than £12 or £14, although the cost of cultivation is greater on horticultural principles than it is on agricultural ones. Once the land has been broken up, if the spade and the fork and the hoe are substituted for the plough, not only would wheat growing be revolutionized, but thousands of men would be kept on the land at better wages, and our wheat crops would be increased enormously. Agriculturists would do well to consider the above figures before smiling too broadly at them.

The annexed diagram (fig. 88) will show at a glance the great advantages to be secured by deep tillage. At A, where the soil is dug out 1 ft. deep, the roots are restricted; at B, showing soil dug 2 ft. deep, a larger mass of roots develop and absorb more food; while at c, dug 3 ft. deep, a still larger mass of roots search the soil for food, and no matter how dry the summer may be the tender feeding tips are always in the midst of plenty of food and moisture.

Fig. 88. - Diagram showing the Root Development in Soil dug 1 ft. deep (a), 2 ft. deep (b), and 3 ft. deep (c). The shaded portion shows the hard, impervious, and unbroken subsoil.