Fungoid Diseases Of Fruit Trees

Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Apple Black Rot. See Quince Black Rot.

Apple Blight (Micrococcus amylovorus).

Appears on bark in small spots, which enlarge and kill the twigs and branches. Flourishes also on unripe fruit.

Use caustic washes in winter, and hot Bordeaux mixture and liver of sulphur when fruits have set. Disease also attacks Pears.

Apple Brown Rot (Sclerotinia or Moni-lia fructigena).

Attacks all parts, but chiefly fruits, in circular lines of reddish or yellowish pustules.

Gather diseased fruits and burn.

Apple Canker (Nectria ditissima).

Attacks bark, and causes it to die and form cracks. Increases rapidly and prevents healing; usually follows attacks of American Blight, the spores germinating in the wounds, and producing minute red balls in spring.

Use caustic washes in winter, and methylated spirit, paraffin, etc, in summer for Blight, and wood tar for the wounds.

Apple Powdery Mildew (Podosphœra oxyacanthœ).

Attacks young shoots and leaves with a white powdery mildew, causing them to shrivel in time.

Spray with hot Bordeaux mixture or liver of sulphur on first appearance, and afterwards if necessary. The disease also attacks Pears, Hawthorns, Medlars, Mountain Ash.

Apple Ripe Rot (Pent-cillium glaucum).

Attacks ripening fruits, and causes them to rot.

Collect rotting fruits and burn.

Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Apple Ripe Rot or Bitter Rot (Glœospo-rium fructigenum).

Appears first as brown spots, which soon bear pustules of a white or pinkish colour, turning to black. Imparts a bitter flavour to the fruit.

Grapes, Pears, and Peaches also attacked. The "rot" increases rapidly amongst stored fruit. Spray with hot Bordeaux mixture or liver of sulphur early in season, after young fruits have set, and at intervals afterwards.

Apple Rust (Gymno-sporangium clavariœ-forme).

Forms scurfy bunches or cluster cups on the under surface of leaves, with orange, yellow, or crimson blotches on upper surface.

This disease grows in one stage on Junipers, and is transmitted to Apple trees in another (Rœstelia) stage. Destroy Junipers if necessary, and spray early in season with Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur mixtures. Also attacks Quinces.

Apple Scab or Black Spot (Fusicladium dendriticum).

Attacks leaves, young shoots, and fruits,first as dirty greenish spots, then enlarging, and blackening, and cracking surface, and deforming leaves and fruits.

Spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions before flowersopen, and after young fruit has set. Burn badly diseased fruits, and cultivate soil with hoe.

Cherry Spot (Fusicla-dium Cerasi).

Stems, leaves, fruits.

Remedies as for Apple and Pear Spot.

Coral Spot Disease (Nectria cinnabar-ina).

Fungus appears in conspicuous bright coral-red warts on dead or dying stems of Apples, Pears, Red and Black Currants, and numerous forest trees.

All diseased shoots should be burned to prevent spores attacking healthy plants the following year.

Currant Leaf Blight (Glœosporium ribis).

Attacks stems and leaves in small red-purple spots in summer, becoming irregular and grey with dark-purple margins, and destroys leaves.

Spray early in season with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions at intervals.

Gooseberry "Die Back" (Botrytis cine-rea or Sclerotinia Fuckeliana)

Attacks all parts of Gooseberries, and kills them in a short time; the leaves first of all turn yellow, then shrivel and die. very prevalent.

No remedy known beyond grubbing up and burning affected plants. Cultivate soil well, and dust heavily with powdered sulphur if fresh Gooseberries are to be planted.

Gooseberry Mildew (American) (Sphœ-rotheca Mors-Uvœ).

Attacks young shoots and leaves in early summer in form of white mildew, and may spread to fruits. In autumn and winter brown felt-like patches with black dots on shoots indicate the disease.

Prevalent in parts of Kent and other places. Spray with liver-of-sulphur (1 lb. to 32 gal. water) recommended, but apparently useless; burn prunings in winter.

Gooseberry Mildew (European) (Micro-sphoera grosstdariœ).

Forms white powdery mildew on leaves in early summer, but is rarely harmful.

The best remedy is plenty of air and light; otherwise spray with hot Bordeaux mixture or liver of sulphur.

Grape, False, or Downy Mildew (Plasmopara viticola).

Appears as white patches on the under surface of leaves, and sometimes on stems and fruits.

Remedies as for Grape Vine Powdery Mildew below.

Grape Vine Anthrac-nose or Bird's-eye Rot (Phoma [Sphace-loma) ampelinum).

Mycelium of fungus penetrates leaves, green bark, and fruit, and kills tissues. Small grey spots at first, becoming sharply defined with dark-brown edges, resembling birds' eyes.

Spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions when first noticed, and at intervals if necessary. In winter wash stems with caustic solution.

Grape Vine Brown Mildew (Sclerotinia Fuckeliana).

Attacks leaves and fruits in brown patches.

Remedies as for mildew below.

Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Grape Vine Powdery Mildew (Uncinula spiralis).

The mycelium attacks the epidermal 'cells of leaves and young fruits, and forms white spots, which after a time become brown withered spots. The leaves wither, but the untouched parts of fruits grow, and eventually burst and shrivel.

Sulphur vaporized in the houses is the best recognized remedy. The mildew may also be killed by applying forcibly fine sprays of hot liver-of-sulphur solution early in season.

Grape Vine, White Rot (Coniothyrium diplodiella).

Sometimes attacks fruits, causing them to brown and shrivel, and later on assume a dull silvery appearance with minute white pimples - the fruit of the fungus.

Best remedy is to remove and burn diseased bunches of fruit, and vaporize sulphur as for ordinary Vine Mildew.

Melon "Nuile" (Sco-lecotrichum meloptho-rum).

Attacks fruits and destroys tissue.

Dust freely with powdered sulphur.

Peach Black Spot (Cladosporium car-pophilum).

The mycelium runs over surface of leaves and fruit, causing pale spots, which become confluent, and sometimes cause fruits to crack.

Spray early in season with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur mixtures. Also attacks Plums and Cherries.

Peach Brown Rot (Monilia fructigena).

This is the same as the Apple, Cherry, and Plum Rot.

Remedies as for Apple Brown Rot.

Peach Leaf Curl (Exo-ascus deformans).

Leaves curl or pucker, and fall. The mycelium rests in tissues of leaves, flowers, and shoots, and attacks leaves in early stages.

Spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur mixtures, and collect and burn as many diseased leaves as possible, and also diseased fruits. Strew powdered sulphur over freshly turned soil.

Peach Mildew (Sphm-rotheca pannosa).

The mycelium forms a thin white coating on leaves and fruit, which become more or less deformed.

Spray with hot liver-of-sulphur solution, or dust with sulphur before fruits set.

Pear Leaf Blight (En-tomosporium macida-tum).

Leaves, stems, and fruits. The spores hibernate in depressions in the bark, and pustules appear on young leaves early in spring, causing them to drop. Dark spots appear on fruits, which become hard, and corky and cracked.

Wash stems with hot caustic soda in winter, and spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions as soon as leaves appear in spring. The Quince is attacked by same disease.

Pear Leaf Fungus (Gymnosporangium clavariœforme).

Attacks leaves of Pears and Junipers.

Remedies as for Pear Spot.

Pear Scab or Spot (Fusicladium pyri-num).

Causes brownish spots on leaves and fruits, also on bark of twigs.

Spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions before flowers open, and after young fruits have set.

Plum and Cherry Black Knot (Plow-rightia morbosa).

Causes crusty wart-like excrescences on twigs and branches, which become deformed and thickened into knots.

Wash well with hot caustic solutions in winter, and with hot Bordeaux mixture in spring when young leaves appear. Cut out and burn any knotted shoots. Cherries are attacked with the same disease.

Plum Leaf Blight (Cy-lindrosporium Padi).

The young leaves become spotted and perforated by holes, caused by the falling out of withered spots. Young trees soon defoliated.

Remedy as for Pear Leaf Blight above.

Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Plum "Pockets"(Exo-ascus Pruni).

Attacks the ovaries, leaves, and shoots. Causes the fleshy part of fruit to swell, while stone remains stunted. The "pocket" plums dry up and hang till autumn.

Where the young shoots are considerably thickened and twisted, they contain mycelium, and should be cut off and burned. Spray when flower buds begin to swell, and afterwards, with hot Bordeaux mixture.

Plum Rust (Puccinia Pruni).

Attacks fruits of Plums, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, Cherries, Almonds.

Spray early with eau celeste or ammoniacal copper carbonate.

Plum "Silver-leaf" (Stereum purpureum).

Leaves assume a glossy leaden appearance, and trees afflicted die in a few years.

No sure remedy. Cut down in summer (not autumn), and burn at once. Dress soil with powdered sulphur before replanting.

Quince Black Rot {Sphaeropsis malo-rum).

The mycelium permeates and destroys the skin of the fruits of Apples and Quinces, causing them to dry up and become mummified.

Spray with hot Bordeaux or liver-of-sulphur solutions when fruit sets, or when flowers are opening.

Raspberry Cane Rust or Anthracnose (Gloeosporium vene • turn or G. necator).

Attacks stems and leaves in small reddish-purple spots, sunken in surface, and often confluent. Ripening fruit remains small and shrivels. The Blackberry is attacked with same disease.

Cut away old stems and decayed remains after fruit is picked, and burn, as they often contain the hibernating mycelium. In spring use hot dilute washes of Bordeaux mixture.

Shot - hole Fungus (Cercospora circum-scissa).

Appears on leaves as translucent spots, which eventually become yellow patches, through which dark-coloured hair-like tufts protrude and bear spores at the tips. The diseased patches drop out later on, leaving holes in the leaf.

Peaches and Nectarines are mostly attacked, but Almonds, Cherries, Apricots also. The best remedy seems to be to spray with the self - boiling lime - sulphur - soda wash early in the season.

Strawberry Leaf Blight (Sphcerella fragariae).

Appears on the upper surface as small reddish spots, which rapidly enlarge, the centres withering and browning.

Pick and burn badly affected leaves. Spray with hot Bordeaux mixture in early summer, and dust sulphur freely over the soil and foliage.

Young Fruit Tree Fungus (Eutypella Prunastri).

Attacks young trees of Apples; also Peaches, Apricots, Cherries, and allied plants, wild and cultivated. Causes premature yellowing and fall of leaves. Afterwards elongated cracks appear on bark in dense clusters. Infection takes place in late spring and early summer.

Disease appears to be most prevalent on heavy badly tilled soils. Therefore cultivate deeply, and dress with lime or basic slag, after well-rotted stable manure has been added. Paint stems with 1 lb. of powdered quicklime mixed with 5 gal. of soft soap reduced to consistency of thick paint.


Asparagus Rust (Puccinia Asparagi).

Attacks stems.

Diseased shoots should be collected and burned in autumn.

Bean, Kidney, Disease (Colletotricnum Lin-dermuthianum).

Chiefly attacks young pods, but also leaves and stems. Brown depressed spots, with a distinct border, appear on pods.

Destroy diseased pods by burning, and dust plants with sulphur.

Bean Rust (Uromyces Phaseoli).

Appears on both surfaces of leaves as small round scattered spots, brown changing to black.

Not very harmful as a rule. Spray early with liver-of-sulphur solution.


Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Beet Heart Rot (Phyl-losticta tabifica or Sporidesmium putre-faciens).

The outer leaves wither, followed by whitish spots with withered tissue filled up with the mycelium, which spreads inwards and attacks the roots.

Diseased plants should be taken up and burned. Mangels and Swedes are also attacked, the disease appearing from the middle of August onwards.

Cabbage Crop Black Rot (Pseudomonas campestris).

Bacteria attack lower leaves of Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Brussels Sprouts, Turnips, etc, and pass into the stems, which become a putrid evil-smelling mass. The veins of diseased plants show up as a black network.

Diseased plants should be taken up and burned, and the soil may be dressed with powdered sulphur.

Cabbage White Rust (Cystopus candidus).

Attacks the leaves, stems, and flowers of all Cabbage crops, and deforms them, covering them with a dense white flour-like mildew.

Diseased plants should be taken up and burned, and all Cruciferous weeds, like Shepherd's Purse, etc., should be suppressed by good cultivation.

Celery Blight (Cerco-spora Apii).

Causes yellowish spots on leaves, turning to brown. The mycelium grows between the cells in leaves, and sends tufts of conidiophores through stomata. Parsnips are affected by same diseases.

Spray early in season with fungicides. The Celery Leaf Blight caused by Septoria Petroselini, var. Apii, attacks leaves and stems, and may be known by small black spots.

Club Root (Plasmodio-phorabras.sicce); also known as "Anbury " and " Finger and Toe".

Attacks the roots of all Cabbage crops, including Turnips, Radishes, Swedes, and Kohl-Rabi, and causes deformed and putrid masses.

The best remedy is fresh gas lime or quicklime dug in when ground is fallow; or slaked lime or basic slag when crops are on soil, or about to be planted.

Cucumber Fruit Spot (Cladosporium cu-cumerinum).

Brown rotten depressions caused on fruits of Cucumbers and Melons.

Causes the same as leaf blotch; remedies the same, all diseased fruits being burned.

Cucumber Leaf Blotch (Cercospora Melonis).

Appears as small green spots on leaves, gradually increasing in size, and becoming brownish or yellow, leaves often becoming dry and shrivelled in twenty-four hours.

Chiefly caused by too high a temperature, lack of fresh air, and too much water. Remedy these conditions and burn all diseased leaves. Melons and Marrows afflicted with same disease under similar conditions.

Hop Mildew (Sphcero-theca Castagnei).

Attacks all parts of plant, including young inflorescences, and thus destroys crop.

Spray early in season with hot Bordeaux mixture or liver of sulphur, and dust freshly turned soil freely with sulphur.

Mushroom Disease (Hypomyces perni-ciosus).

Attacks growing Mushrooms, which become an irregular mass, ultimately decaying into a putrid mass with a disagreeable pungent smell.

Diseased plants should be removed and burned when seen, and better ventilation should be given to Mushroom houses, as foul air is one of the chief causes of attack. Before spawning for a fresh crop, clean out old soil, and burn brimstone or sulphur with closed doors.

Onion Mildew (Per-onospora Schleideni).

Covers tops of onions with a greyish mouldy velvety coat, and causes leaves to flag.

Young plants chiefly injured when grown in badly drained soil, or in low damp situations. Alter these, and spray with fungicides.

Onion Smut (Urocystis Cepulae.).

Attacks green leaves and subterranean scales, forming brown pustules and streaks.

Spray with liver of sulphur, or dust soil and plants with powdered sulphur early. Transplanting to fresh ground is beneficial. Badly diseased plants are best burned.

Common and Scientific Name of Disease.

Parts Attacked and Outward Appearance.

Treatment, etc.

Potato Black Scab (Chrysophlictis endo-biotica); also known as "Wart Disease", "Cauliflower Disease", and "Canker Fungus ".

Attacks tubers and stems, and causes large irregular and mossy outgrowths.

All diseased plants and tubers should be burned. See article on "Potatoes", Vol. IV.

Potato Disease (Phyto-phthora infestans).

Attacks leaves, shoots, and tubers, causing them to become discoloured, brown-spotted, and rotten.

Good culture is one of the best remedies. See article on " Potatoes ", Vol. IV. Spray as a preventive with Bordeaux mixture early in season.

Potato Leaf Curl (Ma-crosporium Solani).

Causes leaves to curl, and prevents assimilation; forms irregular blackish velvety patches.

Remedies as above for Potato Disease.

Potato Scab (Oospora Scabies).

Attacks young tubers, forming rough scattered patches on surface, gradually enlarging.

Avoid "scabbed" seed and half-rotted manure. Deep tillage is the best remedy, and sulphur should be freely dusted in trenches if affection is feared.

Potato Stem Rot (Bacillus phytophthorus).

The fungus causes the leaves to flag and turn yellow, and then to shrivel and die. The stems are discoloured, and eventually become black and rotten.

Diseased plants should be burned. Deep cultivation and wide planting, north and south, should be adopted. See article on "Potatoes ", Vol. IV.

Potato Winter Rot (Nectria Solani).

Fungus appears in white tufts on stored tubers, and changes to pale pink later on to produce more spores, reducing tubers to a rotten evil-smelling mass.

Storehouse should be well ventilated, dry, and cool. Tubers should not be heaped up too much, and should be well dried before storing. A sprinkling with powdered sulphur is useful as a check.

Spinach Anthracnose Colletotrichum Spin-aceae).

Appears at first as moist patches on leaves, becoming minute brown pustules, and eventually grey dry areas.

Dust plants and soil freely with powdered sulphur, and cultivate deeply.

Spinach Mildew [Per-onospora effusa).

Causes a violet-grey mildew on under surface of leaves, and yellowish blotches on upper.

Avoid waterlogged or low damp soils. Dress with slaked lime and powdered sulphur if disease appears, and cultivate deeply.

Spinach White Smut (Entyloma Ellisi).

Attacks leaves, and discolours them.

Dress soil and plants with powdered sulphur.

Tomato Bacterial Disease.

Attacks fruits when about size of a marble, and black blotch rapidly increases in size, eventually reducing fruit to blackish mass.

No remedy for affected fruits beyond picking and burning.

Tomato Black Rot or Black Stripe(Macro-sporium Solani).

The fungus forms long blackish stripes on the stems, irregularly shaped blotches on the leaves, and black blotches on the fruits.

Best remedy is to take up and burn diseased plants.

Tomato Sleepy Disease (Fusarium lycoper -sici).

The fungus is internal, and when plants are nearly full-grown causes leaves to droop and change colour. The basal portion of stem becomes mildewed, and dull orange patches appear all over.

Take up and burn diseased plants, and freely dust soil with sulphur, after pouring boiling water over if possible.