This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol3", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.

Inches apart. | No. of Plants |

3x3 ...... | 4356 |

4x4 ...... | 2450 |

5x4 ...... | 1960 |

6x4 ...... | 1633 |

6x6 ...... | 1089 |

8x6 ...... | 816 |

Inches apart. | No. of Plants. |

8x8 ...... | 612 |

10 X 8 ...... | 490 |

10 x 10 ...... | 392 |

12 x 12 ...... | 272 |

15 x 10 ...... | 261 |

By multiplying the number of plants to a square rod by 160 the number per acre is obtained.

Inches apart. | No. of Plants. |

30 X 12 ...... | 17,424 |

30 X 18 ...... | 11,616 |

30 X 24 ...... | 8,712 |

Inches apart. | No. of Plants. |

30 x 30 ...... | 6,969 |

30 X 36 ...... | 5,808 |

30 x 42 ...... | 4,978 |

If it is desired to lay out an acre of ground in the form of a rectangle, the area is divided by the length of one side to ascertain the other. Thus an acre of land = 4840 sq. yd. = 160 sq. poles = 10 sq. chains. A rectangle may be obtained by having sides 88 yd. X 55 yd., by 16 poles x 10 poles, or by 5 chains x 2 chains.

If the length of a rectangle is to be a certain number of times the width, the following rule will serve: Divide the area by the ratio of length to the width, and the square root of the quotient will be the shorter side required; whence the longer is also known. If it is desired to lay out 30 ac. in the form of a rectangle three times as long as broad, proceed thus: 30 ac. = 300 sq. chains. Divide the ratio of length = 300/30 = 100 sq. chains. Extract the square root: 2√100 =10 chains. Then the rectangle will be 10 chains wide and 30 chains long.

The following table relating to the proportions of a circle, and its equal and inscribed square, will prove useful in calculations: -

1. Diameter of a circle x .8862 | side of an equal square. |

2. Circumference of a circle x .2821 | |

3. Diameter of a circle X .7071 | side of an inscribed square. |

4. Circumference of a circle x .2251 = | |

5. Area of a circle X .6366 | |

6. Side of inscribed square x 1.414 = | diameter of a circumscribed |

circle. | |

7. „ „ x 4.443 | circumference of an equal |

circle. | |

8. „ a square x 1.128 = | diameter of an equal circle. |

9. „ „ x 3.545 = | circumference of an equal |

circle. |

From this table one may describe any square or circle of equal dimensions.

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