This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
Besides the garden varieties of Roses there are now many natural species in which a trade is done. These include the Sweet Brier (R. rubiginosa) and the many lovely varieties of "Penzance" Briers that have been raised by crossing it with the garden varieties. The Japanese Rose (R. rugosa), readily distinguished by its deeply veined leaves, large single or semi-double white or deep magenta-coloured flowers, exceedingly spiny stems, and large brilliant crimson "hips" or fruits in winter. The Polyantha Rose (R. multiflora), from which the popular Crimson Rambler has been derived, and R. Wichuraiana (tig. 435), both natives of China and Japan, are the parents of two vigorous families of climbing garden Roses that sell freely. The Common Dog Rose or Brier (R. canina) is valuable not only as a hedge plant and for its lovely flowers, but also as a valuable stock for the choicer garden Roses. R. indica is the China Rose, from which numerous hybrids have been raised. The Austrian Briers (R. lutea), with yellow flowers; the Ayrshire Roses (R. arvensis or repens); R. pomifera, with large deep-crimson fruits; R. sempervirens, the Evergreen Rose; R. setigera,the North American Prairie Rose; and the Scotch Rose (R. pirn-pinellifolia or spinosissima) are species in which a certain amount of trade is done; but there are many others, including the almost thornless Banksian Rose from China (R. Banksice).