This section is from the book "The Gardener V2", by William Thomson. Also available from Amazon: The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener.
This group is a large one, consisting mainly of annual and biennial and a few perennial species. A small selection of species only is needed to embrace the best and most distinct. The taller-growing species are best adapted for ornamenting the back lines of mixed borders and for planting among shrubs to give colour, in which latter position they produce a very fine effect. The dwarfer species are suitable and elegant ornaments for rockwork or for the front lines of mixed borders in moderate shade - that is, their beauties are longer enjoyable in a somewhat shady position than in one fully exposed to the sun. They are propagated by division, and by seeds in spring.
This is a beautiful dwarf-growing species, producing handsome pinnately - divided leaves somewhat glaucous, and a profusion of leafless, roughly hairy stems, each supporting a solitary large bright yellow flower. Flowers in June, July, and August. Height about 1 foot. Native of the mountains of Austria. A variety named Papaver a. miniatum is very beautiful; the flowers are pale yellow in the centre, shading into deep orange-red on the margin.
This is a splendid tall-growing species, producing dense rounded masses of long pinnately divided leaves, roughish to the touch above and below. The flower-stems are almost leafless, very rough to the touch, and rise to the height of 3 or 4 feet, supporting each an enormously large bright reddish-scarlet flower, the petals and sepals marked at the base with a large intense dark-crimson spot. Flowers in June and July. Native of Siberia.
A very handsome species, producing large orange or brick-red flowers, the sepals and petals being marked at the base with a dull white spot. Flowers in >May, June, and July. Height about 18 inches. Native of Greece. Best adapted for culture on rockwork.
A most interesting and beautiful diminutive species. It forms dense prostrate masses of foliage, above which it throws its beautiful, large, orange-yellow flowers an inch or two. It is a choice ornament for rockwork, and should have a moist but well-drained position. Flowers in June, July, and August. Height 6 to 9 inches. Native of the Pyrenees.