Phyteuma is one of the most distinct, though not the most showy, of Campanulaceae. It is nearly allied to Campanula, but always easily distinguished from it by the curved cylindrical form of the corolla in bud. Though not destitute of beauty of colour, they are not to be recommended for the higher ornamental purposes; yet all are pretty and decidedly interesting. The list, as given in some catalogues, is probably too long, several of the so-called species proving, in cultivation at least, mere varieties of certain of the best marked forms: some of these will be noticed under their respective relationships.

Phyteuma Hemisphcericum

Phyteuma Hemisphcericum a very dwarf species from Switzerland, rarely exceeding 6 inches high, is somewhat tufted in growth, the stems terminating in dense hemispherical heads of bright-blue flowers, which appear in June and July: best adapted for cultivation on rockwork in light rich loam in a moderately dry position. This is a pretty and interesting plant.

Phyteuma Humilis

Phyteuma Humilis is, if possible, more dwarf than the preceding. The blue flowers are produced in globular heads about June and July. It is a tiny interesting plant that should have a warm sheltered place on the rockwork in the same quality of soil as advised for the preceding species. It is found on the Tyrol at great elevations.

Phyteuma Orbiculare

Phyteuma Orbiculare enjoys a place in the British flora, but is rather rare at home; it is found, however, plentifully enough in the mountain pastures of central and southern Europe. It varies considerably in height in nature, but in cultivation it averages 1 foot high. The stems are somewhat decumbent at the base, but erect in the upper portion, and terminating in globular heads of violet-coloured flowers, which appear in July and August. It is most suitable for rockwork, but succeeds well in the front lines of mixed borders if the soil is light, rich, and warm, and is always most at home in chalky soils.

Phyteuma Miclielii

Phyteuma Miclielii has oval flower-heads, which elongate as the flowers open into cylindrical spikes of bright-blue flowers in July and August. It grows from 6 to 10 inches high, is adapted for culture on either the rockwork or in the mixed border in light rich loam, and is a pretty and distinct species found in various parts of the south of Europe on mountain pastures. Phyteuma scorzonerifolium and Phyteuma angustissimum differ little in cultivation from Phyteuma Michelii as regards colour of flower and form of spikes; the former, however, is rather a stronger plant, and has the leaves on longer footstalks.

Phyteuma Nigrum

Phyteuma Nigrum from middle and southern Europe, is erect in growth, about 8 or 10 inches high, with oblong spikes of intense dark violet-coloured flowers. Very suitable for the shady sides of rockwork in light rich soil. Flowers in May, June, and July.

Phyteuma Canescens

Phyteuma Canescens is one of the most distinct and showy in the family. The plant is somewhat hoary, in most parts being covered with rough bristly hairs. The simple stems rise to the height of 1 1/2 or 2 feet, and are terminated by long raceme-like spikes of lilac flowers, the spikes in luxuriant plants being often branched. This species adapts itself to a variety of positions, and is available to enrich the vegetation of open woods and other shady places. W. S.