Many questions were brought up at the American Nurserymen's Convention, in Chicago, last week, which were passed over for lack of time to discuss them.

A member claimed that the Black Walnut, being a tap-rooted tree, the only way to grow it to perfection is to plant the nut where the tree is to remain. A great many amateurs in tree growing, judging from isolated cases, are firmly fixed in the belief, that if the tap-root of a tap-rooted tree is once cut off or injured it will never make a full grown perfect tree. It is true that the Black Walnut is a hard tree to transplant after standing longer than a year or two where the nut was planted. A person wanting only a few trees would do best by sprouting the nuts in moss, or other moist material, and after the tap-root has grown an inch or two, cut off the end, and plant them carefully. I have found them to grow very satisfactorily in this way, they will not make so much growth the first season, but they will have a well balanced root and are easily transplanted.

This is two tedious when they are to be planted in large quantity; when planted on a large scale they should be carefully cultivated the first season, bringing them up to 18 or 24 inches, removed carefully, the roots well tightened when planting, and they will then be sure to grow.

This idea about the tree never coming to perfection is undoubtedly a mistake. In discussing this tap-root question, which comes up quite as often as the seventeen-year locust, we need not confine ourselves to the Black Walnut but take tap-rooted trees in general. The Oaks and most of the nut bearing trees will be found in this class; we will take the Oak as the type of the class. To understand them thoroughly we should take them as nature has managed them for ages before man. There are compensations in nature; she gives some trees an advantage in one direction, and some in another. Now let us see how Oaks and other tap-rooted trees would have fared, had nature neglected to supply them with their tap-root.

The Elm, the Ash, and most of our trees produce from 100 to 1000 seeds, to every one produced by our Oaks and nut bearing trees, and they are in many cases provided by nature with wings and other appendages for carrying them in all directions, where they may find an opportunity to germinate. The coniferous seeds have wings by which they can float away, as without them they would fall under the parent tree and "damp off" under its shade. The seeds of the Poplars are carried on wings of down, after they ripen in the early summer, so as to plant them in moist soils along the banks and bars of rivers, just after the waters have receded, leaving the ground with the right degree of moisture to favor the germination of such delicate seeds. The Elm seeds ripen at the same time, and it has almost an equal opportunity to distribute its seeds. The Elm is a wonderful seed bearer, a single tree sometimes producing nearly or quite a million of seeds, while 10,000 or 20,000 will rarely, if ever, be found on a tap-rooted tree.

Hence we see that without the tap-root we would have neither Oaks nor Walnuts. The comparatively small number of these seeds have no provision for being carried to a distance, but drop under the parent tree, many of them are devoured by animals, but the few that remain force their tap-root into the ground, while the seeds of Elms and other trees are being dried up. This tap-root will penetrate between the roots of other trees and plants, and when once anchored, there it will bide its time, the sun may not be able to penetrate, so as to give scarcely a ray of light, yet this plant remains patiently waiting, forcing its tap-root deeper and deeper, until it is many times longer than all its growth above ground. It will struggle along, even when year after year the ground is so fully occupied that it cannot throw out side roots, until it gets an opportunity either from the decay of surrounding trees, when it will batten on the decayed roots and make a remarkable growth, or if a fire comes and sweeps the forest, the Oak will force up a shoot or shoots from the collar.

It is this pertinacity of the Oak which deceives the casual observer, and sets him to writing articles about Oak forests springing up after a Pine forest has been cleared away, "where Oaks were never known to grow before. I never saw a Pine forest in a soil and climate where Oaks could be made to grow that had not Oaks already growing there. Now, after the Oak has got firmly established, so that it can throw out side roots, it immediately commences to get rid of its dependence on the tap-root, and the sooner the better for the tree.

The tap-root is of no more use after the side roots are established than the tail is to the tadpole after it has got on its legs.

An Editor of one of our papers recently copied from a Scotch paper an article relating to a forester who had planted a number of young Oak trees with the tap-roots cut off, and at the same time planted a number of acorns of the same species of Oak. After several years' growth he had them taken up and placed on exhibition. The transplanted trees were both larger and better formed than the seedlings. Now, this was a very interesting and convincing experiment; yet there is not one nurseryman in a hundred who did not know that this must necessarily be the case. Yet this Editor was seized with a severe fit of Anglomania, and said that when forestry has been practiced in this country one hundred years we will then begin to know what they do now know in [ Europe. We certainly have a better opportunity of studying the effect of the tap-root on Oaks and Walnut trees than the foresters in Europe, as there is hardly a farm in the timbered sections of this country where the farmer has not had stumps dug out or pulled up and laid by the roadside. We also see them on the sides of new railroad lines and where improvements are going on.

If any one will examine and study these stumps, as undoubtedly every one would who is interested in tree growth, he would not only see that these trees had long been independent of their tap-roots, but that the trees which had depended on them the longest were the poorest and most misshapen.

Show us a tree with a straight stem and a well-balanced head, and we will show you a tree that is not depending on the tap-root, but is gathering nutriment in every direction.

Waukegan, Wisconsin, [Plenty of Walnut and other trees, transplanted and denuded of tap-root when young, are majestic trees about here. In Germany tap-roots to Walnut trees are regarded as evils, and when a nut is sown a milk pan is often placed in the ground under the nut, so that when the tap-root goes down it strikes the pan, and has to turn up at the sides, and then become a surface instead of a taproot___Ed. G. M].