This is the Umbrella Pine, so-called by the Japanese, and which is the literal meaning of its botanical Greek name. It may be said to be a forest tree, though it is no longer found in Japan forests; all that is known of them wild being confined to a small spot on the Japanese Island of Niphon, though it is commonly planted about Japanese temples. In the splendid collection of Japanese woods at the American Centennial there was no specimen of this, which also indicates that it is not abundant enough to be included among the lumber products of the Island. It reaches the height of 80 or 100 feet, and we should judge from the appearance of things that the quality of timber would rank with white pine.

Umbrella Pine.

Umbrella Pine.

Unlike white pine however, it is extremely slow in growth when young, though, as in the case with many of the fir tribe, when it gets strength it grows with fair rapidity. One of the largest specimens in Europe is said to be a fine example growing in the garden of Max Daniel Wolterbeck, at Valkenburg, near Arnheim, in Holland. It was planted where it now stands, in a very exposed situation, twenty years ago, and it is a healthy and beautifully formed tree. Moreover, it has never suffered in the least from frost or other climatal influences. Of pyramidal shape, it is nearly 13 feet high, with a circumference of a little over 21 feet. Two years ago it bore for the first time two ripe cones, and the seed produced fifteen seedlings. Last summer it bore only one ripe cone.

This is a more rapid growth than one on the writer's grounds which was raised from seeds brought from Japan by Commodore Perry's Japan exploring expedition of 1852, and is now 5 feet high. This must have been among the earliest of modern introductions from Japan, as the date of its introduction to England by Veitch is set down as 1861. Lobb introduced a plant from Java in 1853, but this subsequently died. We have no doubt there are larger ones in America from the same Perry seed than this 5-feet specimen, as the Editor distributed all his stronger ones, keeping only the weak one for himself. We shall be glad to know who has the finest in America.

Whether it will ever become a popular forestry species is a question no one can answer now, but it is undoubtedly one of the most strikingly beautiful of all hardy coniferae. Like all other pines, the true leaves are adherent to the bark; and are seen only (in other pines) when the branches are young, or in an enervated condition. Then they are free from the stems and take the form of flattened leaves. When the growth is vigorous the union occurs. The two forms of foliage are very commonly seen in the Chinese Juniper or the common Red Cedar. In pines a secondary growth of leaves appears from the axils of the scales where a branch should spring, and these are known as pine needles. In most pines, these fascicles of needles come out at every axil in the upper parts of the branches. In the Umbrella Pine they only come out at the extreme end of the season's growth, giving the exact appearance of the frame-work of a Japan umbrella. Each of these secondary leaves seemed formed of two leaves united into one, and they have been known to split like seed leaves with a young bud growth in the cleft.

They have been very scarce and high priced in the past; but are getting now within the reach of moderate sized purses. The cut represents a plant 3 feet high.