Lieutenant Swatka says in the Independent:

" Along most of the Arctic coast the ice does not disappear from the ocean channels during the whole summer, and it would be nothing unusual, of course, to find a low state of temperature hereabouts. Inland, however, this is changed. As soon as the black rocks begin peeping through the snow, the havoc on that material commences; for by this time the sun is never setting, and there is no cessation at night to the melting as we see in our irregular spring weather. Pretty soon the black and brown carpets of moss show through, and there is but a day or two left, unless some fog bank or cloud-masses put in an early appearance to screen the ground from the ceaseless peltings of the sun's rays, as it swings around the horizon, but never sets.

" Just as soon as the ground is barren of snow - about the 10th of July for King William's Land - vegetation springs up in a way that any one would pronounce more tropical than polar. Nor does it wait long after the snow before the pretty Arctic flowers come peeping through, as thick as in any better attended bed at home. I have seen them growing so close to the snow that it had to be pressed aside with the foot in order to pick them. When on King William's Land I often crossed marshy places where the moss was studded with flowers that sprang from the little soil the sphagnum held, and oftentimes this thick sphagnum would break under the feet as we walked along in the hot August sun, and the person would sink about a foot to eighteen inches in the marsh, only to bring up on solidly frozen ground beneath. It was really wading through ice water, although vegetation flourished, the surface water being a little warmer than that below, however. After the ice gets out of the Arctic inland lakes - from the 1st to the 10th of August in the deepest ones - and much before that in the very shallow ones, the water has a chance to warm up a little, and flowers spring into existence around its borders in the densest profusion, while the great amount of aquatic life on its surface, seeking food during the breeding season, looks much more like a lake in the temperate zone than one in the Arctic. I believe I can conscientiously say that I have seen lake shores in Arctic countries where a traveler might walk for a hundred yards and hardly be able to put his foot down without crushing one or more, so very thick were they.

The predominating color of these polar flowers seemed to be found in the various tints lying between white and yellow, giving a bright golden look to the beds where thickest".