This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
+ Leaves alternate, stipulate.
* Carpels more or less united, often forming a fleshy fruit.
Trees and shrubs having white, pink, or scarlet flowers,
Rosacea, tribe Pomece, page 171 ++ Leaves exstipulate.
Placentas spread over the dissepiments.
Water-plants with showy flowers and orbicular floating leaves......Nymphaaccea, p. 34
Loasea, p. 203 Sepals and petals numerous, passing gradually from one into the other. Fleshy, often prickly plants. Cactee, p. 208 Placentas axile.
Shrubs having opposite leaves furnished with translucent dots.......Myrtacea, p. 193
Petals very numerous. Trailing herbs with fleshy leaves,
Ficoidea, p. 208 Petals few, strap-shaped. Trees with simple alternate deciduous leaves and small capitate polygamous flowers . . . . . . Nyssa, p. 217
Petals few, oval or oblong. Shrubs with deciduous, opposite leaves, and white, fragrant flowers Philadelphus, p. 185 §§ Ovary wholly superior. + Leaves stipulate.
* Carpels more or less distinct (at least when young), or solitary. Stamens hypogynous.
Carpels numerous. Trees or shrubs having alternate stipulate leaves and usually showy fragrant flowers,
Magnoliacea, p 23 Stamens perigynous. Carpel one .... Rosacea tribe Prunece, p. 140
Carpel more than one .... Rosaceae, p. 142-170 ** Carpels wholly combined into a solid pistil, with more placentas than one. Calyx with an imbricated aestivation. Placentas parietal.
Shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves and showy fugacious flowers having crumpled petals Cistinece, p. 55 Placentas axile.
Trailing herbs with succulent leaves and showy flowers having a calyx of two sepals united at the base,
Portulacece, p. 74 Calyx with a valvate aestivation. Stamens monadelphous. Anthers 2-celled. Deciduous shrub with petaloid yellow
6epals.......Fremontia, p. 84
Anthers 1-celled. Herbs or shrubs having showy flowers. Petals usually oblique and twisted in aestivation . . . . . . Malvaceae-, p. 79
Stamens quite free. Large trees with simple deciduous leaves and rather small flowers . . . Tilia, page 84 ++ Leaves exstipulate.
* Carpels more or less distinct (at least when young), or solitary. Stamens perigynous.
Carpel solitary. Deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs with alternate leaves and white or pink flowers,
Rosacea, tribe Pruneae, p. 140 Carpels more than one. Herbs or shrubs, various,
Rosacea, p. 142-170 Stamens hypogynous. Herbs with regular or irregular bisexual flowers
Ranunculaceae, p. 1 Climbing shrubs with unisexual inconspicuous flowers and spicate or capitate carpels,
Magnoliacea, tribe Schizandreae, p. 26 Trees or shrubs with alternate leaves, dull-coloured tri-merous flowers and aromatic ruminated albumen,
Anonaceae, p. 27 Shrubs or herbs with simple opposite dotted leaves and yellow flowers; stamens united in bundlesHypericineae, p. 76 Shrubs or trees with trifoliolate pinnate or rarely simple leaves and inconspicuous flowers . Anacardiacea, p. 111 ** Carpels combined forming a syncarpous fruit, having more than one placenta. Placentas parietal, in distinct lines.
Juice watery. A spiny shrub with simple leaves and white flowers, seed vessel elevated on a long stalk,
Capparis, p. 53 Juice milky. Herbs having showy evanescent flowers,
Papaveraceae p. 36 Placentas spread over the dissepiments. Water-plants with showy white or yellow flowers and floating orbicular leaves...... Nymphaacea, p. 34
Placentas axile. Stigma simple. Ovary 1-celled, with a free central placenta. Herbs having succulent leaves and showy flowers Portulaceae p. 74 Ovary many-celled. Stamens hypogynous; petals crumpled; seeds numerous. Shrubs with fugacious yellow or white flowers . . Cistincae p. 55 B. Stamens fewer than twenty. § Ovary inferior or partially so. +Leaves stipulate. Placentas axile.
Flowers completely unisexual. Herbs having unsymmetrical flowers and an angular or winged fruit Begoniaceae p. 207 Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. Stamens of the same number and opposite the petals. Evergreen or deciduous shrubs with small, usually inconspicuous flowers
Bhamnacea, page 101 ++eaves exstipulate. Placentas parietal.
1 Incorrectly termed ' tetramerous' at page 27.
Flowers completely unisexual. Perennials or tender annuals having entire or palmately lobed usually hispid leaves, unattractive flowers and ornamental fruits (Gourds) .... Cucurbitacea, p. 206
Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. Shrubs with alternate deciduous leaves and small racemose flowers, Ribes, p. 187 Placentas axile. Flowers umbellate.
Herbs or rarely shrubs with small flowers, two styles, and usually compound or lobed leaves . Umbelliferae, p. 209 Shrubs or trees with small flowers and usually three or more styles ..... Araliaceae, p. 213
Flowers not umbellate. Carpel solitary.
Petals or segments of perianth triangular; stamens of the same number and opposite to them. Parasitical shrubs having thick oblong leaves and inconspicuous flowers followed by viscid white berries,
Loranihaceae, p. 397 Petals hood-shaped or deficient. Large herbs with prickly Rhubarb-like leaves and dense conical spikes of small flowers . . . Gunnera, p. 192
Petals oblong. Shrubs having small flowers and aromatic or balsamic leaves . Anacardiaccae, p. 111
Carpels spreading at the apex. Leaves alternate. Herbs . . Saxifrageae p. 178
Leaves opposite. Shrubs often having large sterile apetalous flowers with coloured calyces
Saxifragece, tribe Hydrangeae, p. 182 Carpels parallel, combined.
Calyx valvate; stamens opposite the petals. Shrubs having alternate leaves, and small green, yellow, blue or white flowers . . . Bhamnaceae, p. 101