We are very confident, however, that Mr. Hovey does not speak from experience. We once entertained opinions of root-grafting much the same as his, but it was from the want of experience, and we apprehend that some of our western friends are pronouncing too hastily, even there, where, as we have shown, serious and well founded objections to it do exist.

For the purpose of showing what opinions prevail there, we shall quote the whole discussion of the subject at Dixon, and not what one individual said, as our friend Hovey has done:

"Swaar. - Mr. Williams - Has seen a case parallel to the one just mentioned of the Baldwin.

"Mr. Brayton - Had seen it bear well both root and stock-grafted.

" 0. Bryant - Thinks it should always be worked on very thrifty seedling stocks at standard height.

"Mr. Phoenix - Has several root-grafted; tops appear stinted; bears well; fruit of an excellent flavor.

" A. Bryant - Has several trees budded standard high, very productive, rather deficient in roots; has staked some trees three years; now appear firmly rooted.

" Mr. MoWhorter moved to recommend as best in quality of fruit, for limited cultivation. Lost.

" A. Bryant moved to recommend for general culture when worked at standard height on thrifty seedling stocks. Carried unanimously.

"Mr. Williams was called on to give his views more fully on the advantages of stock-grafted or budded trees over root-grafted.

" Had paid attention to it for several years; this year had spent much time in visiting orchards and making observations. He believes that for the orchards, trees worked standard high are better worth one dollar a tree than for them to plant root-grafted trees, receiving them and a dollar with each tree as a gratuity. Has found our shy bearers, as Early Harvest, Pryor's Red, etc., to bear well when stock worked. To the rule he finds general, there may be some exceptions.

"Mr. Brayton - With him some varieties bear as well root-grafted as budded; some of our cultivated varieties are more hardy than the average of seedlings; such should be root-grafted.

"Mr. MoWhorter - Some varieties, that are very hardy on roots, are poor bearers.

"Mr. Phoenix - Has paid much attention to the subject under discussion; believes that working scions from nursery trees is bad policy; attributes much of the complaining of unproductiveness to this cause; has facts to sustain him. Believes some varieties will prove quite as productive root-grafted as budded, and that some seedling stocks would produce unproductive trees. Recommended raising stocks from seed taken from productive, thrifty seedlings. Thinks it is too soon to decide entirely against root-grafting.

" Mr. Avery - Had taken buds from nursery trees and had them bear the first year; believes if we take two five year old thrifty seedlings, graft one in the root and bud the other, the grafted one would bear as soon as the other. Believes checking the growth by budding on unthrifty seedlings causes early bearing.

" 0. R. Overman - Concurs in the opinion just advanced by Mr. Avery.

"Mr. Finley - Attributes the tardiness of bearing in root-grafted trees to their thrifty growth; has seen blossoms on trees first year, grafted, scions from nursery trees; the young tree, however, was not healthy.

"Mr. Tolman - Knows of no objection to root-grafted trees. Could not sell budded trees in his vicinity; people object to them on account of their sprouting from the stock.

'*Mr. Shaw - Most of those who have taken part in the discussion, admit that budded trees bear best when young; would like to know if they depart from their accustomed ways when old?

" 0. R. Overman - The only objeotion he knows of against budded trees, is that the stocks are frequently allowed to become too large befere budding; at the point of union between the bud and stock the wood becomes defective, and the trees in consequence are short lived.

"Mr. Williams - We plant trees, hoping to eat fruit. I find budded trees to bear good crops six to eight years the soonest. People will soon learn that budded trees are earlier in bearing, and nurserymen will find it to their interest to raise budded trees, though it does cost more than root-grafting.

"After some desultory discussion, moved that we recommend budding or stock-grafting as preferable to root-grafting, (on sections of roots) for general use. Lost by 16 to 14. The subject being new to many, they did not consider themselves prepared to vote.

" 0. B. Overman - Would root-graft largely of some few varieties.

" On motion, adjourned to half-past one o'clock, P. M".

Now this is not a very strong expression against root-grafting even in Illinois; on the contrary, the weight of opinion is in favor of it. Mr. Phoenix, whom we consider „ one of the most observing and intelligent nurserymen in the West, thinks it too soon to decide against root-grafting, and we entirely agree with him.* Mr. C. R. Overman, whose apple tree culture is probably the most extensive in the Union, " would graft largely of some few varieties." This is the right spirit and the right principle. Boot-grafting is not applicable m all cases in any locality; for instance, here, such feeble growing sorts ae Porter. Early Joe, Melon, Red Canada, etc, are usually budded on strong stocks that will force up a vigorous shoot the first year; but such as BaIdwin, Northern Spy, Fall Pippin, Greening, Oravenstein, Farneuse, Bed Astraean, and all those strong, rapid growing trees, succeed well grafted on roots and make large and beautiful trees for orchards at three years' growth.

Is there any argument in theory against root-grafting as a means of propagating? Any reasons, grounded upon vegetable physiology, why a sound, healthy scion, inserted on a young and healthy root, should not make a good tree? We know of none. Indeed, it is one of the most complete and rational modes of propagation that we know of, but it must be properly performed. We are very well aware that there are many very worthless root-grafted trees grown and sold, and so there are of budded ones. Every mode of propagation is abused by careless, unskilful persons; but this constitutes no argument, one way or the other.

The tree-grower has a right to study economy in the propagation of trees, as well as people in other pursuits, and root-grafting recommends itself particularly by its economy. It is, or can be, performed in the leisure of winter, and thus the nurseryman is enabled to employ his workmen, who would otherwise be idle, and he is ako able to give his attention to the propagation of other trees in the budding season.

* Since this was written, we have received a communication on this subject from Mr. Phcenix, which will be published in our next number.

It is a system peculiarly adapted to this country, where trees must be grown cheap and on a very extensive scale.

Top-grafting, in the propagation of young trees, is generally avoided by all good practical nurserymen, and for good and sufficient reasons. It very often happens that there is an inequality of growth between the stock and graft that becomes at once unsightly and injurious to the prosperity of the tree. Besides, it often provokes unnatural precocity that hastens the tree to a premature death. In certain cases, however, it becomes necessary, as in a climate like that of the West, with certain varieties, as in the case of very slender and straggling growers, of pendulous varieties, etc. Aside from such exceptions, it may be regarded as an axiom in propagation, that the earlier and the nearer to the root the union is formed between the stock and graft, the more perfect the union will be and the more healthy and durable the tree.

Budding is, of all other modes, the most extensively practiced, if we except the propagation of American apple trees. It is a complete and beautiful system when well done; but, unless in such cases as we have excepted for grafting, it should be done as near the ground as possible. The younger and more vigorous the stocks be, the more desirable will be the tree. Much depends upon the selection of scions, and we fear that some of the worst results we hear of in the West arise from using pithy, ill-matured scions. We have just received a parcel of scions from Illinois, of four or five different varieties, and we find them so spongy and pithy that we should never use them with a view to obtain sound, hardy trees. Even the base of the shoots are unfit for use, and wo suspect that a very large number of the scions used in the West are of a similar character. It may be well for Western tree growers to look into this, and it deserves consideration everywhere.

Root-Grafting #1

Whenever the frost is out so that roots can be dug, it is a good plan for every one who resides in the country to practice a little at root-grafting. Every fruit-book gives instructions how to do the work, and practice now will enable you to perform the operation on plant and tree outside in the garden, as you may desire to do in the opening of spring.

There are a great many things that the amateur grower can increase and improve by means of grafting: all tree peonias can be grafted on roots of herbaceous peonias; two, three, or more varieties of spireas or wiegelas can be grown on one bush, and many other things can be done to improve and beautify one's grounds.