In my earliest gardening days, long before I remember to have read any work on vegetable physiology, so that my opinions were not influenced by any theoretical views, I had arrived at the conclusions, that if I transplanted a tree soon after the leaves began to fall, I should have a vigorous growth of wood, and of the smaller fruits, as the currant, a good crop of fruit also, in the following summer; if I transplanted in the winter, when the leaves had fallen, I should have a feeble growth of wood, and a comparatively puny crop of fruit and if I transplanted in spring, when the buds were about to burst into leaf, I should generally have a free growth of wood, but little or no fruit, and my subsequent experience has afforded me no reasons for differing materially from the above conclusions.

By way of illustration, I may mention a somewhat remarkable instance of successful transplanting at the time I recommend. A five year old tree, of the White Eagle variety of the gooseberry, was transplanted when the leaves in the center only, had fallen; in the following summer I exhibited twenty berries, the produce of this tree, at the meeting of a horticultural society I was connected with, and obtained a premium for them. I never, either before or since, had a crop from that tree of equal size and beauty, nor had there been twenty berries of that variety, so large, produced at any former exhibition, though nurserymen who had several trees to select their fruit from, were members of the society, and exhibitors. Now, it is evident that the tree had entirely recovered from the effects of transplanting before winter, before the time had arrived when Lindley considers it safest to plant. If it had been transplanted when the leaves had fallen, I do think it would have been almost impossible, however much care had been taken in the operation, to have had so vigorous a growth of wood, and so fine a crop of fruit, in the following summer.

There would, doubtless, have been little or no difference in the amount of organizable sap which the tree would have contained during winter, whether it had been of the roots before the leaves unfolded. Most eminent physiologists are of opinion that food is absorbed from the soil almost exclusively by the extremities of the roots, called spongioles. Owing to the delicate nature of these organs, it it hardly possible to preserve any considerable quantity of them, even by the greatest attention and care; hence the importance of transplanting at a time when the damage to the roots* can be most certainly and speedily repaired. The influence of mature leaves on the formation of roots, is now generally understood. Andrew Knight, in a paper on the Detached Leaves of Plants, said - "he had frequently observed in his experiments, that the destruction of the mature leaves of young plants suspended the growth of the roots." Many experiments have been made of late years, with detached leaves, that is, leaves without any wood or even a bud at their base. I have been curious enough to grow them, and found that with due care they will live a considerable time; they add considerably to their substance, become thick and fleshy, usually form a tuberous sort of base, and emit roots abundantly.

Lindley speaks of the advantages possessed by evergreen over deciduous trees, in transplanting, owing to the presence of efficient foliage. "As evergreens/' he remarks, "are never deprived of their leaves, so they are never incapable of forming roots; on the contrary, they produce them abundantly all winter long, and rapidly at any other period of the year which is favorable to their growth, so that they are capable of making good an injury to their roots much more speedily than deciduous plants." Then why not plant deciduous trees at a time when a part of the foliage remains in an efficient state, and enable them to repair their damaged roots as speedily as evergreen trees? It is certainly possible, as may be objected, that the weather early in the fall, might prove so unfavorable as to injure the newly planted tree; on the other hand, I believe it is certain, that if favorable weather should be experienced, the tree would grow with greater vigor the following year, than if it had been removed at any other time.

But, considering the inefficient state of the roots of a winter-transplanted tree, may it not be asked, is it not also possible that the weather in the early part of spring might prove so unfavorable thai "the efforts of the tree to recover itself by the emission of leaves, would only accelerate its end?" It is well known to planters that this may occur, and I think it must be conceded that the growth of a tree planted after the leaves had fallen, would be comparatively feeble, even under the most favorabe circumstances. Owing to the damaged state of its roots, a scanty and deficient supply of aqueous sap would be absorbed in early spring; a less quantity of organi-zable sap would be dissolved; the buds would be imperfectly nourished, and would not acquire that size and plumpness, so sure a sign of health and vigor; the first emitted leaves would be comparatively small; a less breadth of foliage would thus be exposed to the light, and a less quantity of sap would therefore be elaborated in spring and early summer; hence the pony growth of the fruit and young wood, and the crippled state of the tree for that year at least; it would in fact have the appearance so well understood by the phrase, "a transplanted tree."

With respect to transplanting in spring, when the buds are about to burst into leaf, I do not think it advisable to defer transplanting till then, if it can be avoided, although the growth of several trees which I have removed at that time has been very satisfactory, and seemed to me much more vigorous than it would have been if they had been planted soon after the leaves had fallen; hot early in the fall is every way preferable. A plant, I bebe sufficient to make fell planting more successful generally. Gardeners know the importance of bottom heat in inducing cuttings to strike root, and the soil in the fall will be warmer, as compared with the air, than it is in spring, and will probably, in consequence, be more favorable to the emission of roots. Spring, moreover, is a very busy time with the farmer and gardener, and work which can as well be done in the fall, should be disposed of at that time. Besides, by planting early in the fell, we have the choice of nursery stock, a matter of some importance.

I mentioned that success in planting depends much on the weather, and on the care observed in performing the operation. Mild, cloudy, moist weather should always be selected for planting, if possible. Leaves perform their functions by the aid of diffused light, or in cloudy weather, as well as in bright sunshine; they are not, indeed, capable of doing the same amount of work, but in cloudy weather, and with a damp atmosphere, there is less evaporation from the leaves, and roots do not dry so quickly when, exposed to the air. The surface of roots should never be suffered to become dry. When removing from one part of a garden to another, no more plants should be lifted at once-than can be planted while the roots continue moist, and when transplanting from a distant nursery, they should be coated with puddle, and further protected by moss and matting.

In planting, a space should be dug out wide enough to allow the roots to be spread horizontally. This is seldom attended to as it ought; many seem never to consider that a plant is a living being, requiring food, or if such a thought occurs to them, they must conclude that it is a matter of little moment how the roots are disposed of, so that they are buried in the soil. The quantity and quality of fruit produced in after years will be influenced to some extent by the character or position of the roots, and by the mode in which they are distributed through the soil During the growing season, there is a more or less constant motion of the fluids in a soil; downwards when much rain fells, and upwards when dry weather prevails, to supply evaporation; by this means food is presented to the roots, and it is obvious that a plant must work at greater advantage whose roots extend horizontally six feet, as compared with one whose roots do not extend over more than half that distance. If we tether a calf to a stake in a pasture, the food can only be available within the length of its tether; extend the tether but a little, and by the increased circumference of the circle the supply of food is considerably increased.

Not only should the main roots be spread horizontally, but the lateral fibres should be so arranged as to cover as great a surface as possible. When the roots are spread, I cover them slightly with earth, then lay on a coating of manure or compost, apply water, and level with the common soil. Some, when planting fruit trees, dig out the earth below where the roots are to be spread, and add a foot or so of compost, but unless a soil is very poor, I prefer laying the manure about the roots. The fibrous roots of plants ace so constituted as to grow most in that direction wherein they meet with most food, and it is desirable to keep them near the surface. The shallowest planted trees, are generally the most fruitful, and many an unthrifty tree has been restored to health and fruitfulness, by simply raising its main roots nearer the surface.

The character or the position of the roots of a tree, 1 have found a matter of some importance. The nearer they spring from a common center the better. - I mean there should be one tier or whorl, shore another. This will net he the case, or at least not to an injurious extent, if cuttings are not planted more than about three inches deep, or if seedling trees are not replanted deeper than they at first grew. But I hare observed in cases where cuttings were abundant, that many have been made too. large, and planted too deep; roots plants in land in good condition, and as large cuttings contain within themselves a much greater quantity of organizable matter than small ones, they grow with great vigor at first, and soon become showy and saleable plants; but I never could make trees of this description grow well afterwards, nor produce fine fruit. When in the course of time, the soil has become somewhat exhausted, and manure is applied, the difference in the position of the roots begins to tell. Manure is usually laid on, or worked into the surface soil round the plants, and its soluble fertilizing matters are conveyed to the roots by the motion of the fluids in the soil, in the manures previously mentioned.

A treewith four or five tiers of short roots, is now much in the position of a tree whose roots have been doubled and cramped together in transplanting; it has not that extensive and efficient horizontal network of fibres, as a tree whose roots have all sprung from the base of the cutting.

John Townley.

Port-Hope, Columbia Co., Wis., 1851.