This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The first pruning for the second year should be done before the buds burst, and may begin any time after the severest winter weather is over. The plants, whether from buds or grafts, should be pruned up to straight stems, and those tall enough to form heads should be cut back to some uniform height. Standard Apples and Standard Pears should be cut back to about three feet, owing to the average strength of growth made by the block of trees under treatment; Dwarf Apples, Dwarf Pears and Dwarf Cherries to eighteen inches; Standard Cherries, of sweet varieties, and Plums, to same height as for Standard Apples. Standard Duke and Morello Cherries should not be cut back, as they make handsomer trees left at their full height, which does not often exceed that given above ' for a standard tree.
Trees which, from any cause, are so ill-shaped or undersized that they cannot be brought into market with the bulk of the block, should be taken up and transplanted into nursery rows, where they can have time to make the necessary growth. They should be out back about one-half their length at time of transplanting, and allowed to grow one season. Early the next spring, before the buds have started, they should be cut back close to the point where budded, or near the ground, when grafted plants are under treatment. Only one shoot should be allowed to grow, and the same attention is then required as for the care of a young budded plant after cutting back the stock.