Places of limited extent require far more of study and knowledge to create beauty and due effect than those which cover acres, and bring from time to time, by reason of their extent, some change of view. The small place is presented almost entirely at one view to the eye, and its arrangement, as a whole, whether effectively or otherwise, requires care and thought combined with a fine taste and appreciation of the beautiful.

In laying out and planting clumps and belts for ornament in places of limited extent, care should be taken that the ground is not wasted and the appearance of extent diminished by making them too broad, covering too much surface. As a guide, six to ten feet is sufficient width, if planted thickly with young plants, as it leaves more room for grass, giving the place a lighter, more airy, and elegant appearance, than if crowded and darkened with too much breadth.

Where large surfaces of grass require relief, it may be done with a few good single specimens, clumps of evergreens, or beds of flowering plants, always remembering that, except sufficient roomy walks, no bare ground should be seen that can be avoided. Many places are spoiled by having two or three times as much surface covered with trees as they ought to have.

Care should be taken to prevent hedges, trees, or shrubs from becoming top-heavy, causing the shade and drip from the higher branches to kill the lower, leaving the ground bare at the bottom; so that while the plants are young, it is best to prune all more or less into shape, cutting in the branches gradually closer near the top, and leaving the lower longer, so that every part of the plant can have equal light, air, and rain, thus keeping the ground covered, and every part of the plant equally furnished with good, healthy, well ripened wood, leaves, and flowers. Where the plants have been much neglected, and become thin or bad in shape, a portion of the worst branches may be shortened in one season, which may break during the following summer, and the remainder may then be cut in the next season.

In arranging plants or trees that are distinct in form or color, they should be distributed at unequal distances, and in groups of unequal quantities, so that one thing may prevail in one part and another in another; otherwise, whether the place be large or small, it would present too much of repetition.