This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Fruit trees should never be transplanted to a poorer soil than that in which they formerly grew before removed. Most nurseries have very rich soil; hence their trees are developed to a fine healthy size when ready for sale. Unless the purchaser pays as much attention to their after-treatment as they received before, he certainly cannot expect good results.
All land for orchards must be well enriched, not necessarily with stimulating manures, but, at any rate, with good phospates, bones, lime, ashes, muck, marl, or stable manure. We believe it a good practice to give every fruit tree, every year, a good application of a peck to a bushel of manure. If the farmer's orchard is too large for his manurial resources, then let him be content with less trees, and take good care of those he does own.
It will generally be found that fruit trees in clay soils will be far more thrifty than in sandy or loamy lands. The reasons are plain. A clay soil has more moisture and retains it longer than the others, which are more porous. But if the clay soil is not well drained, and has not a good subsoil, it may prove very injurious from an excess of water. A good loamy surface soil, with clay subsoil, is always desirable, and better than clay undrained.