This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Standard Roses, now so much in vogue, require a good stake to preserve them from toppling over, the heads being often too heavy for the root A plan of fastening standards to supports has been introduced, which is found to be perfectly satisfactory. It makes a capital strong neat tie, without the chance of injury to the plants or their getting loose: it is merely a band of soaked straw, tied with strong string between the plant and support, and at the back of the stakes. It is well adapted to other plants requiring like support.
So long as English gardens afford examples of beauty and cultivation for all the rest of the world, so long will the rose maintain its position as the popular favorite. We have flowers with greater brilliancy of color and chaster symmetry of form, which bloom earlier and last longer - whose value is even increased by their having no thorns; and yet, in whatever aspect it is viewed, whether as being hardy and easily grown, or as fra- grant and agreeably colored, or as handsome and beautiful in all its parts, or whether it is associated with the sports of childhood and the pleasures of old age - the rose, both of the garden and the field, has more fond admirers than any other flower either native or exotic; the emblem of the country itself, no other flower is so fit a representative of an English garden, and no other flower has stronger claims to embellish the architecture of an English home. Since, then, the rose is so much and so justly esteemed, it is not surprising that its cultivation should be carried on to an extent commensurate with its great merits, and unequalled in any other country.
It is thought, however, that its culture as a standard has been kept somewhat stationary, and that but few persons are aware of the magnitude to which the rose may be grown, or the admirable effect which it may be made to produce on a lawn or pleasure ground; yet with a sufficiently strong stem, and a system of careful and patient training, there can be no reasonable doubt but that the standard roses could be grown to the size and form of the ordinary examples of Weeping Ash, having the branches all produced from the top of a single stem, and flowing downwards on all sides; thus forming at the same time an example of English cultivation, and a very ornamental object for a lawn. It may be also observed that the construction of a comfortable seat round its stem would afford a cool and fragrant retreat during the hot days of summer, so that in fact those who could not enjoy the luxury of a bed of roses might at the least have the curtains.
It is not wished to be inferred that either the Dog rose or the Manettii rose could be grown to the strength of the Ash stem, nor is such vigor necessary in a standard, trained in the manner alluded to. There does not seem, however, to be any reason for supposing that either may not be grown ten or twelve feet high, and with proportionate strength. But the chief, if not the whole, support for the head must be provided artificially, by driving down a stout stake or pole, to which the stock may be fastened, and then the branches directed downwards to small hoops of wire of any diameter, from five to fifteen or even twenty feet, according to taste. The climbing or spreading sorts of roses are of course the most suitable for growing in this form, but indeed almost any rose may be selected; and if J in the course of a few years the branches are carried out to a great radius, some light props might be necessary to the wires at the interior. If grown' simply as an object of decoration on the lawn, the standard may have a stock about seven feet in height, and the diameter of the head at the extremity of the branches may be about five feet, so that in general form it would appear like a blunt cone.
But if it is desired to combine the ease of the arbor with the elegance and beauty of the tree, then it must be grown to a larger scale, and provided with a seat round the stem. In this case the branches should be trained to the ground, so as completely to conceal the interior, an entrance being left at one side. The general management of the tree when once well established, is similar to that of roses grown in the common way, and therefore need not be entered upon here. - P. F. K. (Gardeners' Bot. Mag).