The fruit having been gathered and selected, the next thing to do is to stem it In "Medoc" and all the "Bordelais" this is invariably done. But in "Burgundy" and other districts they commonly omit it, and throw stem and all into the vat; if, however, the season has been bad, and the stems remain unripe, they are of necessity excluded in whole or in part, lest they do more harm than' good. The chief reason for putting in the stems is to correct the disease called "teitter," for which the turrin acid, etc., of the stem is thought to be an antidote. Fortunately, we know comparatively little, as yet, of any wine disease, except acidity, but still it will remain for us to decide, upon experience, which of the two methods it is best to adopt. Probably we shall arrive at the same diversity of practice as is witnessed here. Stemming is usually done by rubbing the fruit upon a grating of iron rods, but the better way, decidedly, is a grating of wood. It is made of bars two thirds of an inch square, carved into each other where they cross, so as to bring them down to an even face, leaving openings or meshes two thirds of an inch square.

This is established like a table with four legs, with a rim around it about ten inches high, and a proper receptacle beneath to receive and carry off the stemmed fruit as it falls through and the juice which escapes. The table is four feet square and four feet high. About three bushels of grapes are put on to the grating, which four men with bare arms soon rub through, leaving the stems behind, which are then thrown into a small circular press, like our hand cider presses, which extracts the juice of the few grains remaining on them. In this way four men can stem enough to make fifty barrels of wine per day. For one who makes but a small quantity, a deep tub and a three-pronged stick will do very well.