As to this, we would say, choose neither a wet nor a dry locality; rather what might be termed a moist soil. It is a French saying, that "the Fig likes to have its foot in the water and its head in the sun." A light loam seems to be preferable, and especially a soil replete with calcareous elements. In planting and training, the rules followed in Fig-growing countries are not altogether applicable here, or at least in this latitude. In Europe, plantations are made. In England, walls are used; but with us the better plan is to grow the trees separately, and apart; not in rows, but scattered, and, if practicable, between other fruit trees. In this way disease, or an enemy attacking one plant, will not be communicated to the others. The most practicable form in which to grow the tree is in the shape of stools, taking great care not to allow them to become too thick or crowded. In this way it will be easier to give them their winter protection. Of all the fruit-trees, none require protection against winter frosts more than the Fig. If left unprotected in cold climates, it is sure to be killed down to the ground.

Hence it becomes a very important question, how to afford this pro-tection 1 It is a necessary evil connected with growing the Fig, and in any latitude where the tree can withstand the winter it is far better off without any protection. The uncovering the tree in the spring is attended very frequently by serious evils, in sudden checks, resulting in the loss of the first crop, and considerable growth of wood. Various devices have been resorted to for protection, but in this latitude the safest and easiest is to cover the tree with earth. This should be done late in the fall, before the ground freezes, and while it is yet friable and free from excess of moisture. The tree should be freed from all dead and unnecessary wood, the superfluous layers taken off, and the shoots gathered together and bound into a bundle with ropes of straw; (this is supposing the stool form;) then dig around the roots, and throw the tree over, so that the whole mass shall lay upon the ground; then pile on the earth and mound over to a sufficient depth to effectually exclude the frost; taking particular pains to finish the mounds so that they will not break open during the winter, and that the rains and snow may readily drain away from their bases.

In removing this covering in the spring, corresponding care must be exercised not to wound the canes with the spade, and the time for uncovering should be delayed as directed in Part No. I., in the November number.

The Soil 17005The Soil 17006

We have spoken of the Fig solely as an open air fruit, and therefore do not intend here to enter into the subject of forcing, or the acceleration of ripening by artificial means.

We have practiced, in the fall crop, the anointing of the eyes of the fruit with olive oil, which, despite all the sneers of the overwise, we have found to facilitate maturation in a very remarkable manner; the why and the wherefore we leave to more knowing ones to explain.

We are advocating the cause of a pet fruit, and if the attention of amateurs shall in any wise be drawn to the culture of the Fig by reason of any thing these unpretending papers have put forth, their aim and object will then have been literally fulfilled.

Soil #1

A superficial glance would no doubt make us draw the conclusion, that there was no need of being very particular in regard to the kind of soil best adapted for those plants we wish to cultivate; but a closer investigation will tend to convince us that such is not the fact. When we remember that the soil is the principal agent from which the plants draw their nourishment through the roots; and when we cultivate a plant it is not enough that it grows, but our object must be to give it substances which are needful, in order that the plant may develop itself and attain the greatest perfection. Prof. Justus Liebig justly says : " Give - so says the rational theory - to one plant such substances as are necessary for its development, but spare those which are not requisite for the production of other plants that require them,." We have, therefore, only one true course to pursue, and this is to inquire, In what kind of soil does this plant grow in its natural state 1

[To be continued].

The Soil #2

Flowers need something more than dirt. A dry warm loam, rich, fine, with a large admixture of sand, is the soil for flowers. Thousands of dollars' worth of fine flower seeds are lost every year by being planted in cold, hard, wet or half pulverized soil. The utmost care should be taken in this matter. It is but a small space that you grow the flowers in and that should be the best and the most thoroughly prepared.

Soil #3

It is presumed that there has been some preparation in the way of providing soil for potting, previous to the winter season commencing; this should be attended to the previous summer, when the soil is dry. At that season we will give a few hints on the subject; at the present time we must write as if that was provided at the proper time and is now dry and fit for use in a convenient place, and may mention that soil should at all times be used about the same temperature as the house in which the plants are grown in; this is easily managed by filling a few boxes with the kind required and placing them the previous day in proximity to the heating apparatus; this is especially necessary for tender hothouse plants and young seedlings and cuttings.

Soil #4

One of the conditions essential towards success in rose culture is the preparation of the soil. Good loamy soil requires very little preparation beyond the usual trenching and manuring. It must be understood, however, that if the soil is wet, draining will be necessary, for it is useless and wasteful to put manure on wet soil. In all such cases, then, the first effort must be to drain the soil. Thorough draining airs the ground to whatever depth it drains off the water; therefore it is best to drain deep. Water occupies a large portion of the texture of what we call solid earth. When we draw the water from the soil by drains, the space thus occupied by the water in the earth is supplied by air. The air transmits heat and cold less rapidly than water. Deep drainage therefore tends to equalize the temperature of the soil, and to neutralize the effect of great and sudden changes in the temperature of the earth's surface. It is impossible to underdrain a wet subsoil too thoroughly, as the earth has the power to draw up from below all the moisture that is needed to sustain vegetable life; and in addition it also has the power to absorb a vast quantity of moisture from the air in its passage through the soil.

Next in importance to drainage, therefore, is deep trenching. It supplements drainage by often and repeated exposure of a certain depth of soil to the action of the sun and air, by which its oxygenation is carried on more rapidly than it otherwise would be when not so exposed.

The worst of all soils for roses are those of a light, dry, sandy or gravelly nature. In such soils roses often suffer from the dry weather in the hot summer months, and are liable to the attacks of the red spider, one of the worst enemies the rose has to contend against, and which is not easily kept under subjection in hot, dry seasons.

Poor soils of this kind or that of old worn-out gardens are sometimes beyond remedy. In such cases the best plan is to move the soil at once, and replace it with good turfy loam from an old pasture or corn-field. Soil that will grow good corn will grow good roses. If rather stiff the better. In fact strong loam and plenty of well-rotted manure, are really all that arc necessary for the cultivation of roses.

The hardy kinds of roses are not so particular as regards locality, providing they, have an open, airy situation, and far enough from trees of all descriptions that the roots of the latter cannot reach the soil of the rose I beds, for it must be understood that roses want all the nourishment the soil can give them, and that they are not willing to share with others that which they require for their own sustenance.