This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
MThe old advice to u prune when your knife is sharp," may in the simple cutting away of a stray twig be considered good, but its practice put upon trees or vines as a rule, would, at some seasons, be found injurious rather than beneficial. Cultivators disagree relative to the best time, but all, or nearly all, adopt some specific season for their general pruning. At the extreme North, pruning the apple or pear in late autumn may be found unadvisable, because of the greater exposure of wood next the last bud remaining; but in our practice, we have never found any injury to occur to the buds from pruning the pear and apple trees as soon as the leaves fall in autumn, and we are therefore disposed to advise the practice.--Value of Water as an Ameliorating Agent Mr. Meehan is reported as saying, at the Illinois State Horticultural meeting, "that he thought large bodies of water had no material effect in aid of fruit growing. Mr. Saunders, of Washington, is also reported as expressing a similar view, or, in other words, " he did not see, from his observation on the shores of Lake Erie, that there was any advantage in this respect." We are inclined to think both these gentlemen have been over hasty in their remark, and that one season's residence on the shore of a large body of fresh water would convince them of its value as an ameliorating agent of temperature in aid of vegetation within reach of its influence. --Herbaceous perennial plants should be transplanted this fall.
Make the ground deep and rich with well-rotted compost; arrange the plants so that when they grow and flower next season, the tallest growers and darkest colors will be in the center or the back of the bed or border. After planting, mulch the surface with coarse straw manure.