This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The following practical observations on Inarching by separating the branch from the parent tree, and plunging the end of it in a jar of water, or planting it in the earth, will be interesting to our readers.
This method of inarching with the end of the detached branch plunged in a jar of water, or sunk in the ground, seems to have been long known, as Etienne Calville mentions it as early as 1803; and Andre Thouin describes it under the name of the " Kew Graft," which seems to prove that it came to as from England.
In 1850, we grafted for M. Mouchonnet, at Choisie-le-Roi, a double flowering peach-tree, an espalier six years old, which of course had never borne fruit. The bark was too rough and hard to admit of grafting in the usual way, and we therefore tried our new method, and inarched with the branches of a kind of Grosse-Mignonno, putting two at the base of the tree close to the lowest limbs, and two others which were to become the new branches. The experiment succeeded perfectly; and when the grafts had taken well, we cut off the branches in order to concentrate the sap; and that year the shoots were 36 inches long, and the next they bore very fine peaches, a most agreeable surprise to the owner.
This success encouraged us to try to renovate the stocks of some old pear-trees, with the ends of the grafts in water; and the result would have been the same if they had been planted in the ground. For this experiment we chose an old pyramidal pear-tree with branches from another tree measuring from 18 to 21 inches, which were sunk in the earth, in February and March, taking care to place them in such a way as to lead them to the spot where they were to be inarched. When the leaves and flowers appeared on the tree, we performed the operation as described in our "Methode Elementaire," leaving only four or five buds above the part grafted, and shaded it from the sun with a fold of paper. They all succeeded as well as those plunged in water. On examining the bases carefully, we found that the part that was in the water had produced a small excrescence, from whence sprung spongioles that had perished for want of nourishment. It was the same with those that had been sunk in the ground; but in this case we attributed the death of the spongioles to the nature of the soil of Vitry and Choisy-le-Roi, which is not favorable to the growth of the pear-tree. The event justified our suspicions, for on mentioning the fact to an amateur from La Ferte-Gaucher, who was visiting our grounds, he made the experiment on his return home, and inarched the pear upon quince, and the peach upon the almond, planting the ends of the stems in the ground.
These branches took root perfectly well, and at oar Horticultural Exhibition in the autumn of 1858, he showed pear and peach-trees inarched in the spring of the same year, having shoots as thick as one's finger, and three feet seven inches long, with a fine tuft of roots at the base of each. This interesting fact would have passed unnoticed if I had not made it my duty to speak of it while pointing out the advantages of this method of grafting: first, they graft their stock; and secondly, they obtain another healthy tree by cutting off the graft below the point of junction with the stock.
This result has never been obtained by budding the pear and peach-trees, although it has succeeded with the apple, for I have now several varieties of Calville and Canada, which I have watched for three years. These experiments prove that all our fruit trees can be reproduced franc de pied, (from cuttings?) if they are planted in a rich soil like that of "La Perte-Gaucher," which is alluvial and very fertile.
Figures 69 and 70 show the details of the operation. A, 69, a branch planted at the root of the stock. A, 70, a branch plunged in water. B, the part of the branch bound to the stock. C, the upper cat, after the graft has set.
D, the lower cut below the junction.
This inarching may be of great service to horticulturists and fruit-growers when the bads have been destroyed by severe frosts, as they grow with the gradual advance of vegetation, and the planted. branches soon become bearing trees; and above all, it is useful to renovate and beautify the bare trunks of old trees; and these results are important not for fruit trees only, but for others.
We hasten to bring this subject to the attention of horticulturists, hoping to induce them to make experiments which may prove profitable. - Revue Harticole.
Mention is here incidentally made of a double-flowering peach, "six years old," as having "of coursen never borne fruit. Is it so rare for this tree to produce fruit? I am aware that most double-flowering fruit-trees are barren, but we had, some years since, a peach of this sort, which, although but three or four feet high, set quite an abundant crop more than once; I do not think, however, that the fruit ripened. [It is no very uncommon thing for double-flowering Peaches to bear fruit, such as it is. - Ed].
This method differs from the last only in the manner of manipulation. To graft trees by inarching they must necessarily stand near together, so that their stems or branches can be united without separation from the parent stock. Incisions are usually made similar to those employed in tongue grafting. Fig. .SO shows the stems of two trees ready to be joined near their base by inarching. The branches of different trees or of the same tree may be inarched, and in this manner hedges and other forms of live fences may readily be formed. Inarching is often employed instead of grafting by the ordinary methods; and after the union has been formed, the inarched branch is separated from the parent stem. In this manner many varieties of trees which are found difficult to propagate in other ways, are quite rapidly multiplied. For instance, young stocks are planted around a large tree, and near enough to it to allow the branches to conveniently reach the stock when ready for use, at which time they are inarched; and when the branches have firmly united, they are severed from the parent tree, and the stocks removed with their grafts.