The appropriation of all that is beautiful in adjoining or distant scenery is undoubtedly a self-evident right of the landscape artist; and as the hill and valley views, the broad river, or the distant mountain, are considered among the important charms of a country home, improvements should be so managed that they occupy their true and proper position in the real aerial perspective picture. The three gradations of color or indistinctness which characterize every extended landscape scene should be well considered, and plantations so managed as either to perfect or cover up those views that are defective.

There is, perhaps, no finer mode of treating an estate commanding middle and far-off views than by appropriating them; and where the opportunity is presented its development forms one of the most captivating pleasures of landscape embellishment.

We have often heard expressed the great difficulty in planting a place under-standingly, that is, with some meaning or object beyond the mere beauty or proportion of a tree, considered independent of all accessories. Should all things relating to artistical planting be carefully comprehended, so many new suggestions would arise as to make all difficulties vanish. The creation and perfecting of real scenery is one object of landscape gardening, and where planting embraces appropriation, the concealment of boundaries and undesirable objects, opening perspective vistas, artistic grouping, and the development of single independent specimens, one should hardly feel at a loss what to do or where to begin.

No picture is considered complete that has not the three gradations of foreground, middle, and third distance; it is quite essential, therefore, that these be understood in all studies of aerial perspective, as a different character can be given to each prospect. The size of a place has but little to do with the apparent size that can be made, only that it be not less than five acres, and its locality properly selected. We will then suppose that the landscape engineering has been done; that is, the roads, walks, and .grading finished; drainage, bridges, ornamental lakes, entrances, and subdivisions of ground completed, or the well-studied plan so managed that portions be finished at once, and all other portions, when joined at any future time, shall harmonize with each other and as a whole; we are then ready to cut out or plant up our vistas and pictures. To give extent, concealment of boundary fences and division lines is necessary, and this can be done in several ways, as by the sunken fence or ha! ha! by close thickets of shrubbery, at a proper distance by the wire fence, or in some cases between agreeable neighbors by the omission of an apparent division line. The rolling character of the ground will often conceal boundaries without the assistance of art.

Disagreeable features of the landscape should also be concealed from the prominent points of view, and broad stretches of monotonous scenery broken up or divided.

To open a vista artistically is a skilful matter, and requires much careful study; it should not be managed experimentally, but reveal only those features that are desirable: the cutting of a single tree or bough more than should have been done may spoil the picture. Some of the practical principles of engineering are requisite to mark it out and fix precisely the limits. It is not possible to cut through thick groves or belts in precisely the required direction without some guide. A line should first be run out from the place of view about or as near as possible in the direction of the point which is to be the centre of the distant view; this line of reconnoisance is then used as a base line to adjust the true centre line of the proposed vista; by alternately ranging three light rods, a straight line can be run any reasonable distance. If from the top of the house or any high elevation overlooking the trees the bearing of a vista can be taken with a compass, the working line can be laid out on the ground at once.

It sometimes becomes necessary, in the formation of pictorial vistas, to create the middle distance; thus, in overlooking a valley, we get only the foreground and the far distance, and the middle one must then immediately follow the first one. The effect of the atmosphere is to neutralize the color of objects as they recede from the spectator; what is positively green at one's feet, is blue, or purple, or gray on the distant horizon, and between the two extremes there is a uniform gradation. All objects become more and more indistinct as they* recede from the foreground; the sharp, clear outline of trees, and the fine finish of a road or lawn, fade gradually away as the distance increases. Among the different species of trees are to be found nearly all the gradations of color that are required in the aerial perspective picture, and by a judicious use of them those parts that are wanting may be supplied. If it becomes necessary to make the middle distance within the inclosure, or within moderate limits, then the foreground trees should be of warm, rich greens, and those intended for the second distance of negative or colder colors.

The second distance then planted immediately succeeding the first, is in this manner made apparently to occupy its proper intervening position between the two others. It must be remembered that a vista all planted with positively colored trees, such as the maple or hickory, will naturally present the three gradations of distance; if it is all planted with trees having neutral tints, the effect is the same; but if the middle distance be composed of positive colors, and the foreground of negative colors, the appearance of extent is destroyed. If the foreground be of positive colors, and the middle distance of negative colors, then extent is gained in the same proportion that would be required to neutralize a positive color to such neutral colors as are used, the last apparent distance being added to the real distance. In this manner a middle distance may be planted immediately succeeding the foreground, and yet shall appear in its true place, and fill up and present a true picture.

" To make the landscape grateful to the eight, Three points of distance always should unite".

Color alone does not constitute ail of aerial perspective The eye should be gradually carried down the distance by passing from point to point; from a prominent group on one side to one not quite so prominent on the other, as in a broad ocean view the eye is led from the top of one vessel's mast to each successive one more distant. Perspective by finish, or a gradual departure from the polished scenery by the house to bold picturesque forms, must also be considered. There is no effect in any finely finished work placed at a distance; a picture, a statue, architectural embellishments, etc, fail in distant effect if they are not strongly and boldly defined. The high finish of a landscape should never be carried into the middle distance; the foreground is the place for that; the finished picture, the fine effect, presumes upon a gradual blending from a high polish to nature left alone.