This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
ED. Western Horticulturist: Although we are wont to believe that modern practices are, as a general thing, preferable to those of ancient times, and, as a consequence, discard the old, it is sometimes well to refer to the doings and sayings of the forefathers for the purpose of making a comparison between modes of procedure, being thereby the better prepared to judge of the superiority of one oyer the other; for this purpose, I present a very short article, upon the above subject, from a book published over one hundred years ago:
"Grafting is an artificial Transposing or Transplanting of a Twig or Scion, a Bud or Leaf taken from the Tree, or of some other Kind, and placed, or put to, or into, that of another, called Grafting in the Cleft.
"The best Time for gathering Grafts is in the Middle of February. Observe that the Scion is to be cut below the Knot.
"Grafting in the Cleft. First cut or saw off the Top of the Stock to a curious Smoothness; then out two Gashes with a sharp Knife; then, with small Wedges, sharpened according to the Bigness of the Graft, being thrust in, raise the bark'of the Stock, and put in the Graft, exactly shaped as the Wedge; then close it hard with your Hand, and bind it about with Clay and Horse-dung mixed. In this Manner may any Fruits be grafted, whether Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, etc. The Apple is commonly grafted on Crab-Tree Stocks."
Notwithstanding the antiquity of the above, in its directions, it is sufficiently explicit; and there is but little doubt but that, following out the same, with care, would result in equal success with any of the methods produced at the present day.
Columbia, Conn. William H. Yeomans.