A few years since, a person, for the sake of employment, took an agency from a reliable nursery for the sale of their trees. He was wholly inexperienced in tree culture; still, on visiting farmers and others for the sale of his wares, he in-formed them, with as much assurance as though relating a fact based on his personal experience, that their previous failures in orchard planting were the result of mistaken culture. This was probably to some extent correct; but he laid down a course of culture for them to pursue, which, if carried out, would, in a few years, give them large trees in full bearing. His plan was this : for several successive years after the trees were set, use the cultivator and grow buckwheat. Perhaps this was a judicious system to adopt in some cases. We do not say but it may have been; but, so far as our observation extended, it did not amount to much, and soon went out of fashion.

Orchard culture, like that of other crops, must be brought to meet circumstances. Different soils, locations, and climates call for varying processes, so that few general rules can be adopted, to carry out with assurances of success. Of these, we consider a preparation of soil before transplanting, as of the greatest importance. Some soils are naturally deep and open. Where this is not the case, they should be made so before the tree is placed in them; for no tree will flourish for any length of time in a thin or compact soil. It is labor lost to place them there, either in expectation that they will flourish in the ground as it is, or in the hope that after culture will remedy the deficiencies. The last can not be done, for every inch of soil needs a thorough pulverisation, which can not be effected under the roots when they have once been put in place.

In planting trees of any kind, especially fruit trees, we would say, then, pre-pare the land before hand; that is, if the soil is not naturally deep, make it so by deep tillage; if not fine, reduce it, no matter how fine. If not so dry that water will not settle and stand under the trees, drain it; if it requires manure, apply it according to the necessity of the case in previous tillage; in short, bring the land into that high state of cultivation, which is necessary to the successful growth of any other crop. Then trees may be put into it, if they are healthy trees, well taken up and well replanted, with a fair prospect of success.

As it respects their after culture, the good sense of the cultivator ought to be sufficient to give him direction. If he wishes a rapid growth, it will be necessary to feed high, and perhaps to continue cultivation with plowed crops. South and West, where the winters are mild, or in a portion of the country where there can scarcely be said to be any winter, this course may answer well, but in New England, and, indeed, all regions where the winters are severe, we question whether keeping the ground in plowed crops or high feeding is best. It is a well-established fact, we believe, that plowed lands freeze deeper and are more subject to repeated freezings and thawings, than those in grass. Consequently, the roots of the trees are more exposed to the vicissitudes these changes bring. Even in plowed grounds, however, this objection may be removed by littering to secure the tree from the extremes of these changes; still, in our Northern climate, if the ground is well prepared, we can see more advantages than objections in foregoing the use of the plow after the trees are set; and if the ground is stocked, we have found no particular objection. Truly, the trees may not grow so fast under such circumstances.

Rapid growth in a cold • climate is not desirable; it is the harbinger of early decay; for who is not aware that the texture of quick growing trees is much more loose and spongy, open to the action of frosts, than those of slower and more compact growth? Where trees are highly fed, in such a climate, it is no unusual thing for the bark to crack off by freezing and thawing, and even for the trees to split.

Where trees are overfed, the branches too often grow so late in autumn that it is impossible for the wood to ripen, and winter cuts it down as though it were an herbaceous plant. Not so with the trees that nature plants and that grow under her maturing and protecting care. She gives them a needful supply of food to answer the purposes of a healthful growth, and causes them to ripen their wood in full preparation for frosts and storms. Her teachings are worthy of the careful consideration of those who would be successful like her.

Again, nature, when she plants trees, does not disturb their roots with plow or spade. In her forests; she keeps the ground around them in a light, porous condition by the top dressing she gives them. In autumn the leaves of forest trees fall from their branches to cover and protect the roots from the inclement season that awaits them, and in the coming spring these leaves commence to decay to keep the earth light beneath them, so that the tender roots may push around to gather food and give stability to the tree. They also form a fine, healthy manure, which of itself furnishes the aliment of future tree growth.

How far it is expedient to follow nature, others must decide to suit themselves. We have imitated her in furnishing the elements of growth to a few fruit trees, and are so well pleased with the result, that for our own practice, we consider it the best. In other localities, however, it may not be so. Cultivators must decide this matter for themselves. An experiment with a few trees can do no harm, and it will settle the question.

So, then, we have come to the conclusion that the true way for us to raise healthy and long-lived fruit trees is first to prepare the land thoroughly by draining if necessary, and then by a deep and very thorough tillage before the trees are set; then obtain good trees, and see that they are well set; and after the trees are once located in this well-prepared soil, we-would keep it in its fine, light condition by as frequent top dressings as were necessary to secure the result. We have seen land so dressed that was kept as light as when first released from the labors of the plow. Who has not seen fruit trees in locations where the soil was top dressed by the frequent deposits brought on by rains, and admired their thrif-tiness, though neither plow nor spade had disturbed the earth around them since they were set? Such trees are vigorous enough in growth, and abundant bearers. The largest and one of the oldest pear trees we ever saw, stands in a place where it takes the wash of the highway, and bears heavily.

For this top dressing, other manures than those usually employed for plowed crops may safely be used, thereby making the thing more economical to the farm than when corn or other crops are to be raised. Composts are better than yard or stable manures for fruit trees, and there is no decaying substance on the farm that can not safely be employed in the compost heap. Leaves and muck may form the basis of the heap, and all the odds and ends of the premises may be thrown in to hasten their decay and produce their immediate value. Ashes, whether leached or not, slops, brine, every thing almost thrown upon the heap, prevents waste and makes the compound more valuable.

[There is always something fresh in the views of Mr. Bacon, looking to a practical application. There ought to be a general concurrence of opinion in regard to the importance of a thorough preparation of the soil previous to planting an orchard. It can not be as well done after the trees are set, and is very apt to be entirely omitted in consequence of the additional trouble. The cultivation of orchards has occupied a good deal of attention lately. We have no doubt at all as to the utility of cultivating young orchards; we think it ought always to be done. That it is not always satisfactory (though it is very generally) is owing to the fact that the roots of the young trees are needlessly cut to pieces by the plow. This need not, and should not be done. We are also of opinion that old orchards are benefited by cultivation, especially in cases where the original preparation of the soil was not thoroughly done. There can be little doubt, also, that cultivation is the best, cheapest, and quickest mode of renovating an old and worn-out orchard. A thoroughly prepared orchard, after it has become well established, may be put down to grass, and kept in good condition by proper top dressings. It is a great mistake to grow com in an orchard; root crops may be grown judiciously.

There can be no doubt that grass protects the roots of trees; but it may well be doubted whether the roots of the apple and other hardy trees require such protection. The damage done in winter is not to the roots, but to the tops. Where the wood is not ripened, top and bottom will suffer more or less. These are merely hints which our readers may take up and follow out- The remarks of Mr. Bacon in regard to high feeding deserve consideration; but it is a rare thing to see this in an orchard. Where the growth is gross the wood generally ripens imperfectly, and is apt to be winter killed; it is, moreover, liable to other casualties. Our readers all know how tender we are of the roots of plants; still we must not make too strict an application of the fact that Nature uses neither spade nor plow; for in the field of Nature, what is true of trees in this respect, is also true of all plants; yet we know we can not get along without these useful implements. Nature teaches us many useful lessons, which we can not disregard without a penalty; yet it has been wisely ordained that man shall labor to perfect the fruits which Nature has so bountifully provided. Mr.Bacon understands all this as well as we do.

We have dwelt on the subject for a moment for the benefit of those indolent souls who wrest the argument of Nature to excuse their wretched neglect of all the means providentially placed within their reach. If these men will only prepare their orchards, plant their trees, and top dress as Mr. Bacon directs, we will cheerfully consent that their orchards shall remain in grass for the next ten years. - Ed].