This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Deciduous shrubs are propagated by cuttings, layers, offsets or divisions of the root and seed. Cuttings are made of the ripe wood of the same year's growth, cut in November and heeled in - that is, the lower end of the cutting is planted in sand, in a cellar or some place where there is an even temperature, above freezing, and yet not warm enough to start the buds before it is time to plant in the spring. Most of the new varieties are propagated by cutting off the young shoots. These are taken off when about three inches in length, and planted in boxes or shallow pots, filled with sand, and placed in frames where there is a moderate degree of bottom heat. To be successful in raising cuttings in this way, the temperature should be kept as even as possible. The sudden changes from fifty to sixty, and then down to thirty, causes the cuttings to damp off, as the gardeners term it - that is, turning black and rotting. Other varieties of shrubs are raised from cuttings of the root, which may be cut up in small pieces of an inch in length, and planted in the same way. All the varieties like a rich and deep soil. The Laburnum and Japan quince have long roots, which run deep into the ground, and when grown in poor soil, they have a dwarf and stunted appearance.
Most shrubs, as a general rule, send out their roots not far from the surface of the soil; consequently, a slight surface manuring in the fall is all that is necessary to keep them growing and blooming luxuriantly. In pruning, some little judgment is required. Some varieties produce their flowers on the wood of last season's growth; hence, care must be exercised in removing wood, or the supply of flowers will be limited. Others produce their flowers on the young wood made in the spring. These may be pruned more severely. As an illustration of this fact, the Spiraea Prunifolia bears its beautiful white flowers on leafless shoots of last season's growth, while the Spirea Opulifolia, which flowers later, blooms on young shoots of the same season's growth.
The following is a list of twenty-five varieties of the best now in cultivation:
Cytisus Scoparius - Scotch brown, a very graceful growing shrub, of medium size, foliage very small, and bearing a profusion of pea-shaped flowers of a bright yellow; not perfectly hardy, yet does well in sheltered positions. Propagated by seed.
Cydonia Japonica, Japan Quince; a beautiful flower, but the plant, on account of its thorny character, is no favorite with us. Cydonia Japonica Alba is a white, or, more properly speaking, a pink, variety. Both, when planted together, form a pleasing contrast. Propagated by layers and dividing the roots.
Deutzia Scabra grows eight or ten feet high, bearing an abundance of pure white flowerB. The new double flowered variety is pretty, yet we think it will be some time before it supersedes the preceding one. Deutzia Gra-cillis, a dwarf kind, suitable for early flowering in the house. Propagated by cuttings.
Forsythia Viridissima, Golden Bell, flowers very early in spring, and retains its foliage until quite late in the season. Easily propagated by layers. Forsythia Suspensa, a new weeping variety, flowers similar to the above, but much smaller.
Halesia Tetraptera, Silver Bell Tree; a very tall growing shrub, bearing thousands of white bell-shaped flowers. Propagated by seed.
Spirea - A beautiful class of shrubs, commencing to flower early in the spring, and continuing until autumn. Spirea Prunifolia bears its flowers on long, delicate shoots. Spirea Reevesii bears a profusion of white flowers. S. K. Plena, a double flowered variety of the former. Billardii, bright red. Callosa, pink flowered. Propagated by out-tings, layers and divisions of the root.
Syringa Lilac - The new varieties are very fine. Syringa Virginalis, a delicate white flower. Persian, purple flowers. S. Laciniata, -cut leaved, curious foliage. These varieties are valuable, as they commence to flower when quite small. Propagated by layers, cuttings and -divisions of the root.
Tamarisous Africanus - A very graceful shrub, growing quite tall, foliage delicate, flowers in long spikes, of a pale pink; can be raised from layers of the branches.
Weigelia Rosea - This shrub has become very popular. Its beautiful flower, extreme hardiness and quick growth have rendered it a general favorite. Weigelia Amabilis, a strong growing kind,of not much beauty ,but it blooms occasionally d during the summer. Weigelia Variegata, variegated leaves. Propagated by cuttings, layers and divisions of the root.
Viburnum Opulus - The old-fashioned snowball. There are several varieties of this shrub. It is propagated by cutting and layers.
Hypericum, or St. John's Wort - A dwarf shrub, bearing small yellow flowers, in bloom for quite a length of time during summer. Propagated by seed.
Philadelphus Coronarius, or Mock Orange, the most fragrant of all the Syringas. Philadelphus Grandiflorus, larger flower than the former, but not so fragrant. Nana, a dwarfish variety. Gordonarious, similar to Grandiflorus. All the varieties named bear white flowers. Propagated by cuttings, layers and divisions of the root.
Hydrangea; the new variegated leaved varieties are very ornamental. Argentea Varie-gata has white spots or stripes on its leaves. Aurea Variegata, foliage, golden stripes. They require to be protected during winter. Easily propagated by cuttings and layers.
Crataegus Oxycantha, English Hawthorn: The red and white are quite pretty, and well worth cultivating. Propagated by seeds.
Kalmia Latifolia, our native Laurel - Its extreme hardiness and delicate flower has made it quite a favorite of ours. When removed from its native woods, it should be planted in a similar soil.
Calycanthus Floridus - Sweet scented shrub. The stems and flowers are both fragrant. The flowers are not remarkable for their beauty. Propagated by suckers, layers and cuttings.
Rhododendron - There are so many varieties of this beautiful evergreen shrub, that selection is a matter of taste. R. Catawbi-ensis, large purple flower. Maximum, pink flower. Propagated by grafting, seeds and layers. T. C.