This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
In the gardens of the Luxembourg, at Paris, all the quarters containing fruit-trees are surrounded with borders, planted with cherry, plum, and apricot trees, as standards; and some with excellent effect are trained in form of a Vase or en Gobelet, dwarf, or with a stem five feet or rather more in height. The head is formed hollow, in shape like a goblet, the shoots being annually tied to hoops of wood, adapted to the circumference required to give the desired form. Two hoops arc sufficient, the two-year old wood being tied to one; and the equidistant regulation of the one-year old shoots is effected upon the other. As the vase or goblet widens, of course hoops of greater circuit must be prepared, either of new materials, or introducing an additional piece. In some instances the hoops were formed of round, apparently a quarter of an inch, iron rods; but wood is preferable to iron, for vegetation in contact with the latter is apt to be injuriously affected by the rapidity with which it heats and cools. Shoots are apt to spring up in the center of the goblet; but they must be pinched in summer; and so all other irregularities of growth appear likewise to have been. The form is very ornamental; it can be produced at little expense: and the trees were well furnished with fruit buds.
Suppose a tree to have six shoots, let them be tied at equal distances to a hoop placed horizontally, and then shortened a few inches above it, or so as to leave them a foot or more in length. From each of these, two shoots may be trained to the outside of a somewhat wider hoop in the following season; and thus by annually introducing hoops of a width proportionately corresponding with the respective diameters of the vase intended to be imitated, the desired form will ultimately be produced. The head of the tree will be complete-ly balanced; and the branches will be more nearly equidistant than they could be by any other mode of training as a standard. I should prefer wooden hoops to iron ones. If weak, or if two or more pieces must be employed for the hoop, its circular form may be preserved by two small rods, secured diametrically across it. R. Thompton, in Journal Horticultural Society