This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
All the strange inventions do not originate on this side of the water. The London Garden mentions a recommendation to graft the vine on the Mulberry, as a security against the attacks of the Phylloxera, so destructive to the roots of the Grape, the Mulberry being remarkably free from the work of insects. The Garden recommends that the author of the remedy first ascertain whether the vine can possibly be grafted on the Mulberry, a contingency which may appear to him of little importance, but on which nevertheless the success of the plan depends. The Country Gentleman ventures to recommend a more certain remedy, provided it should be successful - grafting the Grape on iron posts.
The effect of artificially warming a vine border, has been seen in many instances; not the least instructive of which occurred to a Mr. Purday, an eminent and scientific British gunsmith. In his garden, at Bayswater, a vinery was filled with wood, and produced an abundance of excellent grapes, in little less -than two years, by merely warming the border. The first year, the vines made wood thirty-seven feet long, strong, short-jointed, and well-ripened. Bnt the plan was next carried out by A. L. Gower, Esq., in Wales, and is described in the journal of the Horticultural Society by his gardener, Mr. Hutchinson. "The bottom of the border," he says, " is gently sloped from the houses to the extreme edge, where is built a box drain extending the whole length of the border, as shown in the accompanying section marked 1; this drain is one foot square, the top of it being level with the bottom of the border, as also shown.
Cut back the stock at winter pruning to point where it is to be grafted, leaving an eye opposite to where the cion is to be inserted. When this bud has grown six inches, pinch it back to three leaves and whip graft on opposite side. Bind with matting and cover with clay, and then with moss over the clay. Keep the moss moist with water of same temperature as the air of the house. When the buds on the cion have commenced growing, remove one leaf from the stock. When the cion is fairly in leaf, remove the shoot from the stock.
A meeting of persons interested in the culture of the grape, and the manufacture of wine, was lately held at Hartford. It was determined to form a vintner's association. Officers were elected, and it was resolved that "there may be as excellent, healthful, high-toned wines produced on our sunny hill-sides as upon those of any other country or State." A convention is to be called.
Accompanying herewith, I send you a drawing, giving a representation of the results of a judicious system of pruning the grapevine, to induce and evenly distribute its fruit-Ailness. The drawing was made by one of my correspondents from a vine in his grounds (out-door culture). It occupied a space of four feet high and three feet wide, and pro-daced and perfectly ripened sixty-sevcn bunches of fruit.
You might use your sashes on hot-beds till middle of April, but they generally warp with the heat and moisture of hot-bed manure and get injured. A vinery that will accomodate twenty vines and cost only $40, will be very cheap, and we have no doubt will "pay" you well, not only by the Grapes you will gather from it, but in the satisfaction it will otherwise afford you.
(A. B., Malmaison Cottage, Ind.) The Hollyhock is propagated from seeds to get new varieties. Named sorts, or such as you wish to preserve, are propagated by cuttings somewhat as Dahlias, The plants are brought into a growing heat in spring, and the young shoots are taken off for cuttings, and managed as Dahlia cuttings. The Calceolaria is propagated also from seeds and cuttings. The shrubby sorts usually by cuttings, the herbaceous by seed, which produce the greatest variety of colors.
The principal business of the vine-dresser, for this month, is what is termed " Summer Pruning," viz., rubbing off suckers from the main stock, cutting out shoots from the axils of the leaves, and shortening in branches that are growing too rampant; but above all, carefully tying up the vines to the stakes to prevent their being broken off by winds, and in such manner as to leave sufficient light and air to the branches of fruit, which will now be growing rapidly. Should weeds grow too fast, they may be kept down by the hoe, or cultivator, or by light surface-ploughing. It is thought best not to open the ground much in the vineyard this month, for fear of mildew or rot, from excessive moisture. The sulphur experiment, as a remedy for these diseases, may be applied this month.
In the calendar for May, the word "barriers" is printed for berries.
The crop is gathered, and the vintage over, usually by the middle of October. Some cultivators hoe their vineyards in autumn, after the vintage, in preference to the spring, but the latter season is preferred bythe majority for ploughing or hoeing. Late in November, when the leaves are all off, and the wood fully matured, the vines may be pruned, if cuttings are wanted for fall planting - a favorite season for setting out cuttings with many nurserymen.