This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
Mr. Smith of Syracuse. 1st. Underdrain, especially if it be a strong soil. 2d. Subsoil to at least 20 inches deep. 3d. Make it rich enough to be suitable for corn.
Mr. Barry. Has been looking at land a good deal this summer, and has hardly seen an acre suitable for a nursery or orchard without tile-draining. Land may be dry in summer, and yet need draining very much for trees which are to stand in it the year round. My drains are 2 1-2 to 3 feet deep, and average about six feet apart, following the conformation of the land. Cost about $30 per acre. For an orchard I would prefer land which had been seeded down to clover. Would tile-drain it. Would turn the clover under 8 inches; follow with subsoil plow and four horses. Our men never plow deep enough. We keep a foreman to watch them all day, and then they don't go deep enough. Would not apply manures in an excavation near the tree.
There are now so many varieties of baskets and boxes made, that almost every grower can have his choke; but to carry fruit in the best condition, they should be made of thin splints, light, strong, and well ventilated, to allow a free circulation of air to carry off the excess of heat and moisture, as the berries are not always dry and cool when put up for shipping. The splints should be so strong that the bottom tier will bear the weight of all the berries, baskets and divisions above them, or the fruit will be mashed as the sides yield to the pressure of the upper tiers of berries.
Having used and tested many kinds within the last quarter of a century, I prefer the Beecher veneer baskets to any others with which I am acquainted. They possess all the properties requisite for arranging fruit in good condition ; are light, strong, and durable, lasting several years with proper care.
A correspondent writes us that he has "recently been through and among thousands of dwarf pear trees, and that while the majority of them had bloomed freely and cast their blooms without setting or holding their fruit, he found the Louise Bonne de Jersey and Beurre d'Anjou the least affected; most if not all the trees of these varieties have set more or less fruit, and some of the former quite abundantly."
There has been a controversy as to the fact of wheat turning to cheat or chess, which as far as I am informed is yet undecided.
It has come under the observation of several farmers, that wheat that has been pastured late is more apt to have a larger proportion of cheat amongst it than that which has not been pastured. This circumstance has suggested the idea that, where the main stalk of wheat has been destroyed, that the tide shoots produce a grain differing from the parent grain. In proof of this I would instance the cabbage: where the head hss been removed, the sprouts from the stalks produce a seed, which will not again produce cabbage - but still retaining much of the nature of cabbage. I do not know whether the attention of those writers on the subject has been turned to this fact, but it appears to me to be a strong case in point. Very respectfully, A Subscriber. Lexington, Ky.t May 1,1852.