This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
All fruit trees must be trained low, in this climate. The protection of the stem and main branches, and the shading of the soil in which the roots find their support, from the powerful rays of the sun, are absolutely necessary to the production of fruit This is to be effected only by training the trees with a low head, and encouraging a thrifty growth. We have this well exemplified in the native forest trees. When forest-grown their united heads afford an ample shade. But if standing alone, every tree protects its own stem and roots, throwing out low and wide spreading branches for the purpose. And this is especially the case in the magnolia, beech, Ac, which, in their smooth and glossy bark, resemble the fruit trees.
" The complaint occasionally made, that budded peach trees very often bear but a scanty crop, and are short lived when compared with chance seedlings, arises, we believe from the practice of budding at a height of three or four feet from the ground, by which a long stem is exposed to the sun. The bark on the south side is absolutely baked, the sap reaches the leaves and fruit in an unhealthy condition; layers of new wood cannot be formed under the bark, and that Bide of the tree ultimately dies. The seedling, on the other hand, is allowed, most commonly, to throw up a number of shoots from the ground or near it, one of which shades another. It is also saved the injury that the worked tree, procured from the nurseries, is too often exposed to in the careless lifting and packing, and transportation to a distance. The apple, too, suffers from the same exposure of its stem to the sun; and hence the frequent spotting and rotting of the fruit - which, however, is also occasioned by the fruit being left on the tree after it is ripe, many kinds retaining their hold upon the tree in this climate, which would drop to the ground to the northward. The pear suffers less from the cause in question than most other fruits.
When thus exposed, it covers its naked and exposed stem either with a forest of suckers and sprouts, or with a rough, scaling bark, which however, is also formed at times even when the tree is sufficiently protected from the sun, but is evidence, we think, that the tree is not in a perfectly healthy condition".
This little book of Mr. Rivers has had a wide circulation in England, and been the means of disseminating many useful ideas on fruit tree culture. This last edition is greatly improved, both in contents and appearance.