Wheeler's Extreme

Fruit, small, nearly two inches wide, and one inch and a quarter high; oblate, much resembling the Api in shape. Skin, pale greenish yellow, considerably marked with russet, particularly round the eye, and covered with fine clear red, which is mottled with deeper red, on the side next the sun. Eye, small, and closed, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a small shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, tender, sweet, and delicately perfumed.

A pretty little dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality; it is in use from November to February.

This was raised by James Wheeler, nurseryman, of Gloucester. The original tree is still existing in the nursery of his great-grandson. The late Mr. J. Cheslin Wheeler informed me that the name of "Extreme" is supposed to have been applied to this variety, from the circumstance of producing its fruit on the extremities of the last year's shoots.

Wheeler's Russet

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters broad, and two inches and a quarter high; roundish ovate, and somewhat irregular in its outline. Skin, entirely covered with pale yellowish grey russet, with reddish brown where exposed to the sun, strewed with russety freckles. Eye, small and closed, with short segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, median; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from half an inch to an inch long, slender, inserted in a round, narrow, and deep cavity. Flesh, greenish white, firm, juicy, brisk, and sugary, with a rich, vinous, and aromatic flavour. Cells, ovate; axile, closed.

A valuable and highly flavoured dessert apple of the first quality; it is in use from November to April; and as Mr. Lindley says, when ripened and begins to shrivel, it is one of the best russets of its season.

The tree is a free grower, healthy, and hardy, but does not attain above the middle size. It is generally a good bearer, and succeeds well in almost any soil, provided it be not too moist.

This was long supposed to have been raised by James Wheeler, the founder of the Gloucester Nursery, now in the occupation of his great-grandson. He published, in 17G3, "The Botanist's and Gardener's New Dictionary," and died about the beginning of the present century, having attained over ninety years of age. I am doubtful, however, if this apple was raised by him, for I have discovered in an old day-book dated 1717, which belonged to Smith and Carpenter, of the Brompton Park Nursery, that it was cultivated there at that period, when James Wheeler must have been a mere child.

White Astrachan (Transparent Apple)

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and nearly the same in height; roundish ovate, or rather conical, flattened at the base, with obtuse angles on the sides, which extend and become more prominent and rib-like round the eye. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, with a few faint streaks of red next the sun, and covered with a delicate white bloom. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, thick and short, inserted in a small and very shallow cavity. Flesh, pure white, semi-transparent, with somewhat gelatinous-like blotches, tender, juicy, with a pleasant and refreshing flavour. Cells, ovate; axile.

A dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality; ripe in August and the early part of September. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer.

The Transparent Apple of Rogers, and the Muscovy Apple of Mortimer, cannot be identical with this, for they are described by both as winter apples; may they not be the Russischer Glasapfel or Astracanischer Winterapfel of Diel?

Respecting this apple, a correspondent in the Gardener's Chronicle for 1845 has the following remark: "When at Revel many years ago, I made particular inquiries as to the mode of cultivation of the Transparent Apple; I learned that the soil of the apple orchards there is almost a pure sand, but that it is customary to add to it so much stable manure, that half the bulk of ground may be said to consist of manure. The friend with whom I was staying had some of these apples at dessert; they were transparent, not in blotches, but throughout, so that held to the light the pips may be seen from every part; these apples were juicy as a peach, about the size of a large one, and of a very agreeable flavour and texture."

White Calville. See Calville Blanche d'Hiver. White Codlin. See Early Almond. White Codlin. See Keswick Codlin. White Lily. See Devonshire Buckland. White Melrose. See Melrose.