Foulden Pearmain (Horrex's Pearmain)

Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half high, and about the same broad; ovate. Skin, yellow in the shade, and clear thin red on the side exposed to the sun, strewed all over with small russety dots. Eye, small and open, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a round and moderately deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, and briskly acid.

An excellent culinary apple, and suitable also for the dessert; in use from November to March.

This originated in the garden of Mrs. Horrex, of Foulden, in Norfolk, and was first brought into notice by Mr. George Lindley, who communicated it to the Horticultural Society, March 7, 1820.

Fox Kernel

Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters wide, and the same in height; ovate or ovato-conical, with five distinct angles, and sometimes smaller intermediate ones, all of which extend to the crown, where they form prominent ridges. From the middle it narrows both towards the stalk and towards the crown. Skin, almost entirely covered with crimson stripes on a deep yellow ground, and especially on the side exposed to the sun, becoming paler as they extend to the shaded side, where the colour is yellow. Eye, rather large, set in a narrow ribbed basin; segments, convergent, with divergent points. Stamens, median; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch or more long, curved obliquely, inserted in a very deep and angular cavity, with an undulating margin. Flesh, very soft, tender, dry, and sweet. Cells, ovate; axile, closed.

A Herefordshire cider apple.


Fruit, growing in clusters of two or three together, very small, not much larger than a good-sized cherry; roundish, and sometimes a little flattened, and narrowing towards the crown. Skin, deep rich golden yellow on the shaded side, and bright reddish orange on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, not depressed, and surrounded with a few knobs. Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in a shallow russety cavity. Flesh, yellow.

Specific gravity of the juice, 1080.

A valuable cider apple.

liaised by Thomas Andrew Knight) Esq., from the Cherry Apple, impregnated with the pollen of the Golden Pippin. It was named Foxley alter the seat of the late Uvedale Price, Esq., in whose garden, where it had been grafted, it first attained maturity. Mr. Knight says, "There is no situation where the common Wild Crab will produce fruit, in which the Foxley will not produce a fine cider."


Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, by the same high; roundish, inclining to ovate, uneven in outline, caused by several obtuse ribs, which terminate in ridges round the eye; in good specimens one side is convex and the other is flattened. Skin, beautifully striped with deep bright crimson and yellow; on the side next the sun it is darker crimson than it is on the shaded side, where the yellow stripes are more apparent; the surface is marked with several dark patches like scabs, which are a never-failing character. Eye, very small, set in a narrow, shallow, and plaited basin; segments, short, somewhat erect, and slightly divergent. Stamens, marginal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy swelling, which pushes it on one side and gives it a curving direction. Flesh, yellow tinged with red, tender, and with a rough acid flavour. Cells, open, elliptical, pointed.

This is one of the most valuable of the cider apples of Herefordshire.

The earliest record we have of the Fox-whelp is by Evelyn in his "Pomona," which is an appendix to the Sylva "concerning fruit trees in relation to cider" This was first published in 1664, and at that time and long after the great apple of Herefordshire was the Red-streak. The Fox-whelp is disposed of in a lew words - "Some commend the Fox-whelp." Ralph Austen, who wrote in 1653, makes no mention of it when he says, "Let the greatest number of fruit trees not onely in the orchards but also in the feilds be Pear-maines, Pippins, Gennet-Moyles, Red-streaks, and such kinds as are knowne by much experience to be especiall good for cider." Neither is any notice taken of it by Dr. Beale in his "Herefordshire Orchards, written in an epistolary address to Samuel Hartlib, Esq.," in 1656. The first notice of it after Evelyn is by Worledge in 1676, who merely says, "The Fox-whelp is esteemed among the choice cider fruits." In Evelyn's lime it appears to have been regarded as a native of Gloucestershire, for Dr. Smith in the "Pomona," when writing of "the best fruit (with us in Gloucestershire)," says, "The cider of the Bromsbury Crab and Fox-whelp is not fit for drinking till the second year, but then very good;" and in the quotation at the head of this paper "a person of great experience " calls it "the Fox-whelp of the Forest of Deane."

Although all who have noticed the Fox-whelp up to this period have spoken of its merits as a cider apple, its cultivation must not have been on an extensive scale, otherwise it would have been better known than it appears to have been. Even Philips, in his celebrated poem on "Cyder," seems as ignorant of its existence as many of the writers on orchards were at that period. The first appreciative notice of it with which we are acquainted is found in a letter to a friend written by Hugh Stafford of Pynes in Devonshire, Esq., bearing date 1727. He says, "This is an apple long known, and of late years has acquired a much greater reputation than it had formerly. The fruit is rather small than middle-sized, in shape long, and all over of a dark red colour. I have been told by a person of credit that a hogshead of cider from this fruit has been sold in London for 8 or eight guineas, and that often a hogshead of French wine has been given in exchange for the same quantity of Fox-whelp. It is said to contain a richer and more cordial juice than even the Red-streak itself, though something rougher if not softened by racking. The tree seems to want the same helps as the Red-streak to make it grow large. It is of Herefordshire extraction."