Topiary Work

The cutting and trimming of shrubs and trees, especially evergreens, into odd or ornamental shapes, thus producing an effect entirely different from that produced by the natural growing habits of the plant. (Birds, vases, urns, etc.)


A thin layer of manure spread over the surface of the ground, no attempt being made to work it into the soil.


The pruning of the top of a plant, especially the removal of the leader, to cause the plant to spread over a wider area and attain less height. Sometimes called "topping."


A term applied to that part of the earth's surface which is tilled and consists of a soil ranging from a sandy loam to a clayey loam, containing the chief elements necessary to support vegetation, in a condition readily made available as plant food, and containing sufficient moisture to support plant life. Usually consisting of the top layer of virgin soil (four inches to eighteen inches deep).

Is the result of the action of heat, frost, air, cultivation, surface or rain water, soil bacteria, etc. It is of finer particles than the subsoil, darker in colour, and looser in texture, and is rich in organic matter. A good topsoil, thoroughly dried, should contain 30 to 40 per cent, voids, when well shaken down in a box; that is 30 to 40 per cent, of its own volume of water should fill it to saturation but not increase the volume of the soil. It should contain from 40 to 60 per cent, of this amount of water to properly support plant life.


A procedure consisting principally of judicious pruning to adapt plants to limited areas or to form particular shapes, also to encourage the formation of flowers and fruit.


The giving off of water vapour through the leaf pores of the plant.


To remove a plant from one location and plant it in another location.


A woody perennial, having a single main trunk.

Tree Pit

A pocket or pit excavated to permit the introduction of sufficient fertile soil to support a tree; a common practice in planting street trees in city streets. The surface of the soil in the pit should be sufficiently lower than the surrounding area so that much of the rain falling on the surrounding area will flow to the pit, and the bottom of the pit must be well drained to remove excess water.


v. To spade ground so deeply that the digging of ditches is necessary; hence to spade ground to two or more times the depth of a spade. In landscape work trenching is usually done for the purpose of saving good topsoil that has been buried under useless subsoil and also for the purpose of mixing manure and fertilizers into soil to a depth of one or more feet, especially in the vicinity of large trees and garden areas.


The upper stratum of earth which is filled with roots of grass; sod.