The immature wingless, worm-like form in which insects (which undergo metamorphosis) have their first stage or stages before acquiring wings.


In soils; the loss, through solution in drainage water, of lime or plant food.


The terminal leaf bud which will often form the main stalk of the plant; not only this bud, but also the previous year's growth is included by the term.

Leaf Curl

In peaches is a condition caused by too rapid cell multiplication in response to the stimulus caused by a parasitic fungus. In snowball bushes the stimulus is caused by aphids.

Leaf Mould

Decayed leaves combined with other organic matter found on a forest floor.


A term used to describe a plant (usually a shrub) on which old growth has developed in such a manner that the mass of fine branches and foliage is on the top part of the plant, and the lower part shows a few bare stems. Usually the result of overcrowding plants or of incorrect pruning (See Plate V).

Lime, or Limestone

A stone containing the element calcium which will unite with oxygen and carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate or "lime," as used on the land.


As applied to planting work usually means the operation of planting small nursery stock in definite rows where such stock can make a further normal growth and be easily maintained.


The soiled straw or leaves which have been used for bedding in stables, but which does not contain any considerable quantity of manure except that which it has absorbed in the form of fluids. Frequently used for mulching purposes.


Earthy matter containing clay, silt, sand, and organic matter in such proportions as to make a soil adapted to supporting vegetable growth. Loam varies from a very sandy loam to a very clayey loam. Usually called topsoil. (See topsoil 6.)

Loam, sandy

Loamy soil which contains a predominance of sand.

Lump Lime

Burned limestone not evenly slaked so as to become finely divided.

Magnesian Lime

A term describing a lime or limestone containing both magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate.


An element, usually occurring as magnesium carbonate, which is a compound useful in correcting soil acidity.


Any material, either organic or inorganic, containing a superabundance of plant food or material which upon decomposition or nitrification becomes available plant food.


An earthy, crumbly deposit consisting chiefly of clay and calcium carbonate much used as a substitute for land lime. "Green sand" marl may be acid, but good chalk marl is valuable for neutralizing acids.


A diseased condition caused by the downy mildew fungus.


Black swamp earth which varies widely in available plant food, very similar to peat except that water is not constantly present during the process of decay; hence the nitrifying bacteria are present and the material is better suited for immediate use as plant food. It is in an intermediate stage between leaf mould and peat.

Plate LX

Plate LX. There is always an opportunity on every large estate for the naturalizing of bulbs. Poet's narcissus is quite happy in a wild garden or field environment. (See page 270, group XXXVI-B)

Plate LXIMuck 82

Plate LXI. Throughout the Southern States the creeping fig is one of the most desirable vines for growth on masonry walls. It develops interesting foliage of a fine texture and is a vigorous grower and compares favourably with the Lowe's Boston ivy, so successfully used in the Northern States. (See page 303, group XLIII-C-b)