No attempt should be made to develop a garden of any kind until a careful analysis has first been made concerning the probable cost for future maintenance. This applies equally as well to the extensive estate as it does to the detailed flower garden and to the average residence property. Plants are growing things and require constant attention in greater or less degree varying with types of development, whether of extreme formality or extreme informality, intended to produce certain effects. Many require an extremely abnormal quantity of labour and others require a minimum of labour for their average maintenance.

Plate XIVMaintenance of Various Kinds of Gardens 31

Plate XIV. The list of trees and shrubs which thrive in the congested city districts where soil conditions are poor and the air is polluted with smoke and dust, is limited to a few kinds, of which the tree-of-heaven, locust and catalpa are typical. (See page 119, group XI-A)

Plate XV

Plate XV. An interesting use of hedges to frame one side of the refined formal garden. Japanese quince on the left side of the walk, Japanese barberry against the right side accented with sheared retinosporas, and buttresses of Japanese quince and Amoor River privet on the extreme left against the vine-covered wall, form the features of this composition. (See page 124)

Wild Garden. Many people labour under the impression that the woodland wild garden demands very little, if any, attention on the maintenance end. The maintenance of a woodland wild garden is a problem, to those who really understand its development and success, of almost as much importance as the maintenance of the more refined formal garden. It matters not what the garden may be, either the woodland wild garden or the refined garden, undesirable weeds and grass will develop if it is not given the necessary attention and cultivation. The wild garden cannot be cultivated as deep or as frequently as the refined flower garden. Not only must the owner ward against the development of weeds but he must watch carefully to be certain that those types of plants which are more vigorous growing or which seem to be best adapted to their particular location do not spread or unnecessarily crowd out certain other desirable plants less vigorous in their habit of growth and less apt to thrive in the competition to which they are subjected. There will be places in the wild garden where soil conditions are not exactly as they should be, and where soil should be renovated or manured and where additional leaf mold soil should be added.