Brugnon Violet Musque, Brugnon Musque

Fruit large, of a deep red and yellow colour; skin very smooth; flesh yellow, but red at the stone; saccharine, vinous, musky; at maturity in August and September.

Early Newington, Large Black Newington, Lucombe's Seedling. Fruit below the middle size, ovate; skin pale green, and on the sunny side of a deep red colour; pulp super - excellent; considered by some as the best of all Nectarines; ripe in August and September.


Fruit medium size, of the finest orange colour, delicately and beautifully mottled with red next the sun, which gives to it a clear waxen appearance; flesh firm, yellow, pale red at the stone, and has a poignant, rich flavour; ripens in August and September.

Red Roman, Roman Red

A very excellent Nectarine, of large size; the skin dark red next the sun. and of a yellowish hue on the other side; flesh yellowish, but red next the stone; it abounds with rich juice when fully ripe, in August and September.

Scarlet Newington, Late Newington, Sion Hill

This variety is much esteemed, the fruit is large, of a beautiful red colour next the sun, and of a fine yellow or amber on the other side; its quality is excellent being rich and juicy; early in September.

Tawny Newington

Fruit large, somewhat ovate; tawny-coloured, marbled with dull red or orange next the sun; flesh pale yellow, but red at the stone; very juicy, sugary, and of the most delicious flavour; ripens in August and September. This, in England, is considered one of the best of clingstone Nectarines.

Orange, Lemon, etc.

Oranger, Citronier, etc


Notwithstanding this fruit, and also the Lemon, Lime, etc, are attainable at all seasons of the year, by supplies from our Southern States, the West Indies, and the South of Europe, yet the plants are entitled to our notice on account of their being so easily cultivated, and from their affording an ornament by exhibiting their fruit the whole of the year.

The Orange, as well as others of the same genus, are generally cultivated as green-house plants, but may be kept in a light room throughout our severe winters, provided the temperature is not suffered to be below the freezing point, 32 degrees. Its recommendations are, handsome evergreen, shining, tree-like form; most odoriferous flowers, and brilliant, fragrant, and delicious fruits, which succeed each other perpetually, and are not unfrequently seen on the tree at the same time, in two or three stages of growth. A work has recently been published at Paris, edited by Messrs. Risso and Poiteau, which contains engravings and descriptions of one hundred and sixty-nine varieties. They are arranged as sweet Oranges, of which they describe 42 sorts; bitter and sour Oranges, 32 sorts; Bergamots, 6 sorts; Limes, 8 sorts; Shaddocks, 6 sorts; Lumes, 12 sorts; Lemons, 46 sorts; Citrons, 17 sorts.

All the species of Citrus endure the open air at Nice, Genoa, and Naples; but at Florence and Milan, and often at Rome, they require protection during the winter, and are generally planted in conservatories and sheds. In England, these trees have been cultivated since 1620; they are generally planted in conservatories. Loudon says that in the south of Devonshire, and particularly at Saltcombe, may be seen, in a few gardens, Orange trees that have withstood the winter in the open air upward of a hundred years. The fruit is as large and fine as any from Portugal. Trees raised from seed, and inoculated on the spot, are found to bear the cold better than trees imported.

At Nuneham, near Oxford, are some fine old trees, planted under a movable case, sheltered by a north wall. In summer, the case is removed, and the ground turfed over, so that the whole resembles a native Orange grove. The author of this work, being a native of Abingdon, which is within three miles of the Earl of Harcourt's estate, has had frequent opportunities of tasting the fruit, which he believes to be equal to that of warmer climates. At Woodhall, near Hamilton, trees of all the species of Citrus are trained against the back walls of forcing-houses, and produce large crops of fruit.

Any of the varieties of the Orange, Lemon, Lime, Shaddock, Citron, etc, may be grafted or budded on stocks of the common Orange or Lemon; but the seed of Shaddocks and Citrons produce the strongest stocks; and on these may be grafted such kinds as may be needed for a conservatory. The most suitable time for budding is July and August; but this operation may be performed at any time when the sap is in motion. The directions for the management of greenhouse plants, apply also to this family of plants, to which I refer my readers. A friend of mine, who is a native of Rouen, in Normandy, informs me, that a Mr. Valee, of that city, succeeds in clearing about twelve thousand francs per annum from the flowers of Orange trees, which are distilled for essences, etc.