This healing by cork occurs in any tissue of living cells exposed by a cut-leaf-tissue, young stem or root, fruit, cambium, etc.; and the same applies to any other kind of cutting or tearing injury - such as a prick with a needle or the proboscis of an insect, a stripping, or even a bruise.

Such healing is prepared for and carried out very thoroughly in the case of falling leaves and cast branches, the plane of separation being covered by a cicatrix of cork.

If the cell-tissue under the wound is actually growing at the time, however, a further process is observed when the wound-cork has been formed. The uninjured cells below go on growing outwards more vigorously than ever, the pressure of the overlying tissues taken off by the cut having been removed, and, lifting up the cork-layer as they do so, they rapidly divide into a juicy mass of thin-walled cells which is of a cushion-like nature and is termed a Callus. This callus is at first a homogeneous tissue of cells which are all alike capable of growing and dividing, but in course of time it undergoes changes in different parts which result in the formation of tracheids, vessels, fibres and other tissue-elements, and even organs, just as the embryonic tissues of the growing points, cambium, etc., of the healthy plant give origin to new growths. Such wound-wood, however, is apt to differ considerably in the arrangement, constitution and hardness of its parts as compared with normal wood, and its peculiar density and cross-graining are often conspicuous.

If instead of a simple tissue, the cut or other wound lays bare a complex mass such as wood, the resultant changes are essentially the same to start with. The living cells bordering the wound form cork, and then those deeper down grow out and form a callus. The exposure of the wood however, entails alterations in its non-living elements also. The lignified walls of tracheids, fibres, etc., turn brown to a considerable depth, and this browning seems to be - like all such discolorations in wounds - due to oxidation changes in the tannins and other bodies present: the process is probably similar to what occurs in humification and in the conversion of sap-wood into heart-wood in trees. Such wood is not merely dead, but it is also incapable of conveying water in the lumina of its elements, which slowly fill with similarly dark-coloured, impervious masses of materials termed "wound-gum," the nature of which is obscure, but which slowly undergoes further changes into resin-like substances.

The exposure of wood by a wound results also in another mode of stopping up the vessels and so hindering the access of air, loss of water, etc., for the living cells of the medullary rays and wood-parenchyma grow into the lumina of the larger vessels through the pits, forming thyloses,again a phenomenon met with in heart-wood. In Conifers the stoppage of the lumina is increased by deposition of resin, which also soaks into the cell-walls and the wounded wood becomes semi-translucent owing to the infiltration.

Every living cell in an active condition is irritable, and one of the commonest physiological reactions of growing tissues is that of responding to the touch of a resistant body, as is vividly shown by the movements of the Sensitive plant, Dionaea, etc., and by those of tendrils, growing root tips, etc., on careful observation. We have reason for stating that if a minute insect, too feeble to pierce the cuticle, cling on to one side of the dome-shaped growing point of any shoot, the irritation of contact of its claws, hairs, etc., would at once cause the protoplasm of the delicate cells to respond by some abnormal behaviour; and, as matter of experiment, Darwin showed long ago that if a minute piece of glass or other hard body is kept in contact with one side of the tip of a root, the growth on the side in contact is interfered with. Moreover we know from experiments on heliotropism, thermotropism, etc., that even intangible stimuli such as rays of light, etc., impinging unsymmetrically on these delicate cells cause alterations in their behaviour - e.g. arrest or acceleration of growth.

Perhaps the most remarkable class of stimulations, however, is that due to the presence of the entire protoplasmic body of one organism in the cell of another, each living its own life for the time being, but the protoplasm of the host cell showing clearly, by its abnormal behaviour, that the presence of the foreign protoplasm is affecting its physiology. A simple example is afforded by Zopfs' Pleotrachelus, the amoeboid protoplasmic body of which lives in the hypha of Pilobolus, causing it to swell up like an inflated bladder, in which the parasite then forms its sporangia. The Pleotrachelus does not kill the Pilobolus, but that its protoplasm alters the metabolic physiology of the latter is shown by the hypertrophy of the cells, and by the curious fact that it stimulates the Pilobolus to form its sexual conjugating cells, otherwise rare, an indication of very far-reaching interference with the life-actions of the host.

An equally remarkable example is that of Plasmodiophora, the amoeboid naked protoplasm of which lives and creeps about in the protoplasm of a cell of the root of a turnip, to which it gains access through the root-hairs. It does not kill the cell, but stimulates its protoplasm to increased activity and growth and division, itself dividing also and passing new amoebae into each new daughter-cell of the host. Here the processes of stimulation, hypertrophy and further division are repeated, until hundreds or thousands of the turnip root-cells are infected. The externally visible result is the formation of distorted swellings on the root (Finger and Toe), most of the cells of which are abnormally large and filled with amoeboid Plasmodiophora protoplasm, which finally devours the turnip-protoplasm and itself passes over into spores. Here we have most convincing proof of the stimulation of protoplasm by other protoplasm in direct contact with it; and that the metabolism of the host-cells is profoundly altered is shown not only by the abnormal growth of the cells, but also by the starvation of the rest of the turnip plant as the Plasmodiophora gets the upper hand. We have here, in fact, a local intracellular parasitic disease, gradually invading large tracts of tissue and eventually inducing general disease resulting in death - a state of affairs reminding us of cancer in animals.

Irritation and hypertrophy of cells, however, may be induced by parasites which never bring their protoplasm into direct contact with that of the host. Many Chytridiaceae penetrate the cells of plants, and grow inside them as short tubes, vesicles, etc., the protoplasm of which is separated by their own cell-walls from that of the host-cell; nevertheless hypertrophy and abnormal cell-divisions and secretions are induced, and the effect even extends to neighbouring cells - e.g. Synchytrium - showing that some influence is exerted through cells themselves not directly affected. This latter point need not surprise us now we know that the cells of plant-tissues are connected by fine protoplasmic strands passing through the separating cell-walls.

But the invading plant need not actually enter the cells, and may still stimulate them through both its own and their own cell-walls to abnormal growth. This is well shown by the intercellular mycelium of Exoacus and Exobasidium, and the latter affords an excellent illustration of the far-reaching effects of hyphae on the cells (of Vaccinium) into which they do not penetrate. Not only are the cells stimulated to grow larger and divide oftener than normally, thus producing large gall-like swellings, but the chlorophyll disappears, the cell sap changes colour to red, the numerous compound crystals normally found in the tissues diminish in number and are different in shape, large quantities of starch are stored up, and even the vascular bundles are altered in character. All these changes indicate very profound alterations in the physiological working of the protoplasm of the cells of the host, and yet the fungus has done its work through both its own cell-walls and those of the host.

Even harmless endophytic algae in the intercellular spaces of plants may stimulate the cells in their immediate neighbourhood to increased growth, e.g. Anabaena in the roots of Cycads.

Notes to Chapter 13

With reference to cork-healing and wound-fever the student may consult Shattock "On the Reparative processes which occur in Vegetable Tissues," Journal of the Linnean Society, 1882, Vol. XIX., p. 1; and Shattock "On the Fall of Branchlets in the Aspen," Journal of Botany, 1883, Vol. XXI., p. 306. Also Richards, "The Respiration of Wounded Plants," Annals of Botany, Vol. X., 1896, p. 531; and "The Evolution of Heat by Wounded Plants," Ann. of Bot., Vol. XI., 1897, p. 29.

For details and figures respecting callus, see Sorauer, Physiol, of Plants, p. 175.

In respect to the irritable movements referred to see Darwin, The Power of Movements in Plants, 1880, chapter III. The recent work of Nawaschin, Beobachtungen ueber den feineren Bau u. Umwandlungen von Plasmodiophora, Flora, Vol. LXXXVI., 1899, p. 404, should be read for details and literature concerning "Finger and Toe."