Control. - Spray with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50, to which has been added one gallon of resin-sal-soda sticker. The first application should be made when the third leaf has developed, and the application should be repeated every ten days until the crop is harvested. Smut ( Urocystis cepulae). - Forms black pustules on the leaves and bulbs. Seedlings may be killed outright.

Control. - Onions from sets or from seed started in soil free from the disease seldom have the smut. Practice crop rotation. Drill into the soil with the seed 100 pounds of sulfur and 50 pounds of air-slaked lime to the acre.

Pea. Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni). - A powdery mildew on pods and leaves.

Control. - Dust dry sulfur over the plants, repeating the operation if necessary. Pod Spot and Leaf-spot (Ascochyta pisi). - Black circular spots on stems, leaves, and buds. The fungus grows through the pod into the seed, and is thus carried through the winter.

Control. - Select pods free from spots, and save the seed from these for the next year's planting. On a large scale have a clean seed garden in which to grow clean seed for the following year. Peach. Blight (Coryneum beyerinkii). - A spotting, gumming and death of the buds and twigs, particularly in the lower part of the tree. The fruit drops. Especially serious in California.

Control. - For California conditions two applications of spray are made: (a) in November or December, and (b) in February or March. This also controls leaf-curl. Bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50, or lime-sulfur, 1-10, may be used. Brown-rot (Scerotinia fructigena). - Causes a rot of the fruit, and often runs down the spur, forming a canker in the limb. Also produces brownish irregular spots on the leaves.

Control. - Spray with self-boiled lime-sulfur, 8-8-50, adding 2 pounds of arsenate of lead. Spray first about time shucks are shedding from young fruit; second, two to three weeks later, and third, about one month before the fruit ripens. Omit the arsenate of lead from the third spraying. On early maturing varieties two applications may be sufficient. Spraying within a month of picking time is apt to leave the fruit spotted. It is especially important that sprayings be made before a continued storm period. Destroy rotten peaches. The rotten ones on the ground are as great a menace (especially if plowed under) as. those on the tree, as the fungus winters readily on the fallen mummies. Brown-rot also occurs on cherries, plums, apricots, and sometimes on apples and pears. Leaf-curl (Exoascus deformans). - Causes the leaves to crimp and curl and often to turn bright red. Also causes shoots to swell and become distorted.

Control. - In an infected orchard more than 90 per cent of the curl can be controlled the first year. The second year control should be complete. The secret of control of leaf-curl lies largely in the thoroughness with which the work is done. A number of spray substances may be used. A single thorough application before the buds swell in the spring is sufficient. Every bud must be covered and from all sides. Lime-sulfur as applied for San Jose scale will control curl. Commercial lime-sulfur, 1-20; bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50; or a simple solution of blue vitriol in water, 2-50, are all specifics.

Leaf-rust. - See under Plum (p. 279).

Little-peach. - A disease that in its early stages resembles yellows. It differs from yellows in producing small fruit that matures later than normally. Fruit does not have the small red spots characteristic of yellows, nor are there slender sickly branches. The cause of this disease is unknown. Apparently spreads more rapidly than yellows and commonly destroys the affected tree sooner. Occurs in the northern states. Preventive. - As for Yellows (see next page).

Powdery mildew (Sphcerotheca pannosa). - A whitish powdery growth on the young shoots and leaves, and whitish spots on the fruit.

Control. — Self-boiled lime-sulfur as for Rot.