One thousand pounds of fresh urine contain: —

 

Water

Nitrogen

Phosphoric Acid

Alkalies

Horse......

890

12.0

0.0

15.0

Cow......

920

8.0

0.0

14.0

Swine......

975

3.0

1.25

2.0

Sheep......

865

14.0

0.5

20.0

The potash of both the dung and the urine is included with lime, magnesia, and other elements, to make up the so-called " alkalies."

Composition of drainage liquors. One thousand pounds contain: —

 

Water

Nitrogen

Phosphoric Acid

Potash

Drainage from gutter behind milch cows .

932

9.8

2.4

8.8

Drainage from manure heap...........

820

15.0

1.0

49.0

The figures presented in this last table are based on analyses made at the Hatch Experiment Station, Amherst, Mass. It will be noticed that these liquors are richer both in nitrogen and in potash than the average of farm manures.

Composition of litter.

One ton contains in pounds: —

 

Nitrogen

Phosphoric Acid

Potash

Wheat straw.....................

9.6

4.4

16.4

Rye straw..................

11.2

5.1

18.1

Oat Straw....................

14.4

3.6

23.0

Barley Straw...............

11.4

5.0

23.5

Pea Straw.......................

20.8

7.0

19.8

Soy bean Straw.......................

14.0

5.0

22.0

Buckwheat Straw.......................

13.0

7.1

24.2

Millet Straw.......................

14.0

3.6

34.0

March bay...................

17.2

10.6

54.0

Ferns...............................

00.0

7.4

37.2

Leaves..................................

15.0

3.2

6.0

Poultry manures.

Poultry manures are richer than the other farm manures when well preserved. There are two principal reasons for this: First, the food is richer, as a rule; and second, the excretion corresponding to the urine of the larger domestic animals is semi-solid, voided with the dung, and not subject to direct loss. Poultry manures as a rule are rich in nitrogen and phosphoric acid, because the foods given the fowls are rich in these elements. These manures are relatively poor in potash, although they may contain a larger percentage of this element than do the other farm manures. The composition is subject to wide variation. The table shows the results of analyses: —

 

Water

Nitrogen

Phosphoric Acid

Potash

Hen manure, fresh, according to Storer . .

Per cent 56.00

Per cent 1.60

Per cent 1.50-2.00

Per cent 0.80-0.90

Hen manure, fresh, analysis by Goessmann

52.35

0.99

0.74

0.25

Hen manure, dry, average two analyses, Goessmann......

8.35

2.13

2.02

0.994

Duck manure, fresh, according to Storer .

56.60

1.00

1.40

0.62

Goose manure, fresh, according to Storer .

77.10

0.55

0.54

0.95

Pigeon manure, according to Storer . . .

52.00

1.75

1.75-2.00

1.0-1.25

Poultry manure ferments very quickly, and, as frequently handled, loses much of its nitrogen in the form of compounds of ammonia, which are rapidly formed and which escape into the air unless means to prevent are taken. The mixture of poultry manures with such materials as land-plaster, kainit, acid phosphate, or superphosphate plaster is almost imperative for satisfactory preservation. Often dry earth or powdered dry muck or dry sawdust are also excellent materials to mix with it. If kainit alone is used, poultry manure remains very moist, and will be found difficult of application. As a result of experiments in the Massachusetts Experiment Station, it is concluded that the annual excreta collected beneath the roosts per adult barnyard fowl will amount to about 30 to 45 lb., according to the breed.

Utilization of Manures Rate of production (Roberts and Brooks).

Extended investigations at the Cornell Experiment Station showed that the following amounts of excrements were produced daily for each 1000 lb. of live weight of animal: —

Lb.

Sheep.......................      34.1

Calves.......................      67.8

Pigs.......................      83.6

Cows.......................      74.1

Horses..................... .      48.8

Fowls.......................      39.8

Total excrements.................348.2

Total manure ..................388.0

If straw bedding be added, which is nearly or quite equal to excrements in potential manurial value, it will be seen how large a quantity of manure is produced from 6000 lb. of mixed live-stock. A dairy of twenty 1000-lb. cows comfortably fed would produce, in the six winter months, 133 1/3 tons of excrement, or 146 1/2 tons of manure. Animals fed a highly nitrogenous ration, say 1: 4 (as were the pigs in the above investigation), consume large quantities of water, and hence produce large quantities of excrements, especially liquid, the weight of which usually exceeds the weight of food consumed; while those fed on a wide ration, say 1:9, consume comparatively little water, and hence produce less weight of excrements.

The experienced farmer will know from the results of earlier years about the quantity of manure that will be made from a given number of animals. For a beginner, some rule whereby the amount to be made can be estimated with reasonable accuracy will be useful. As the result of careful experiments, German investigators give the following rules to determine the quantity of manure that will be made : Multiply the dry matter in the food consumed by the different classes of farm animals by the following factors: for the horse, by 2.1; for the cow, by 3.8; for the sheep, by 1.8. To the product, in any case, add the weight of the bedding used. The horse of average size consumes daily about 24 lb. of dry matter, and makes, therefore, 2.1 times 24 lb., or 50 lb., of manure daily. The cow of average size consumes daily about 25 lb. of dry matter, and makes 3.8 times 25 lb., or 95 lb., of manure daily. A 125-lb. sheep consumes about 3 lb. of dry matter daily, and makes 1.8 times 3 lb., or 5.4 lb., of manure daily.