Cattle should always be watered a short time before they are dipped. After they emerge from the vat they should be kept on a draining-floor until the dip ceases to run from their bodies ; then they should be placed in a yard free of vegetation until they are entirely dry. If cattle are allowed to drain in places where pools of dip collect, from which they may drink, or are turned at once on the pasture, where the dip will run from their bodies on the grass and other vegetation, serious losses are liable to result. Crowding the animals before they are dry should also be avoided, and they should not be driven any considerable distance within a week after dipping, especially in hot weather. If many repeated treatments are given, the cattle should not be treated oftener than every two weeks.

In addition to protecting vats properly containing arsenical dip when not in use, another precaution must be observed when vats are to be emptied for cleaning. The dip should not be poured or allowed to flow on land and vegetation to which cattle or other animals have access. The best plan is to run the dip in a pit properly protected by fences. The dip should also be deposited where it may be carried by seepage into wells or springs which supply water used on the farm. The same precautions should be observed when animals are sprayed as when they are dipped.

Method of spraying.

Spraying is probably the most practicable and convenient way of treating cattle on the majority of farms. A good type of pail spray pump, costing from $5 to $7, will be found to be satisfactory for treating small herds. About fifteen feet of three-eighths-inch high-pressure hose is required, and a type of nozzle furnishing a cone-shaped spray of not too wide an angle will be found satisfactory. A nozzle with a very small aperture should not be used, because the spray produced is too fine to saturate properly the hair and skin of the animals without consuming an unnecessary amount of time.

The animal to be sprayed should be securely tied to one of the posts of a board or rail fence, or better still, when convenient, to the corner post in an angle of the fence. This will facilitate the spraying by preventing the animal from circling about to avoid the treatment, and will reduce the amount of help necessary. Every position of the body should be thoroughly treated, special attention being given to the head, dewlap, brisket, inside of elbows, inside of thighs and flanks, the tail, and the depressions at the base of the tail. Crude oil alone may be used, but in general a 20 to 25 per cent emulsion will be found more satisfactory. All the cattle on the place should be sprayed every two weeks with this emulsion. The horses and mules should be kept free of ticks by picking or other means.

Disinfectant for ticks in infested stables.

Eradication will be much facilitated if at the beginning of the work all litter and manure are removed from stables, sheds, and yards that have been occupied by the cattle, and deposited on land where cattle are not permitted to run. After this is done, the buildings should be thoroughly disinfected to destroy any eggs or ticks that may be there. For this purpose the following substances may be used :

1.  A mixture made with not more than 11/2 pounds of lime and 1/4 pound of pure carbolic acid to each gallon of water.

2.  Any coal-tar creosote dip permitted by the United States Department of Agriculture in the official dipping of sheep for scabies, diluted to one-fifth of the maximum dilution specified for dipping sheep.

A spray pump should be used to apply the disinfectant, and the walls, floors, and various fixtures of the buildings should be thoroughly sprayed.