This section is from the book "Applied Anatomy: The Construction Of The Human Body", by Gwilym G. Davis. Also available from Amazon: Applied anatomy: The construction of the human body.
The face may be divided into the regions of the forehead, temples, ears, eyes, nose, month, cheek, and upper and lower jaws. The regions of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth will be considered separately. Owing to the face being that part of the body most open to scrutiny and most difficult of concealment, deformities and disfigurements of it, resulting from injury or disease, - to both of which it is prone, - assume a greater importance than the same troubles elsewhere. Therefore, the anatomy of the part should be studied with regard to the treatment of its various affections from a cosmetic as well as from a curative point of view. What is usually regarded as constituting the face embraces the anterior half of the head as viewed from the front.
The bones of the head have been divided into those of the cranium and those of the face. The bones of the cranium are eight in number, viz.: the frontal, occipital, two temporals, two parietals, the sphenoid, and ethmoid. The bones of the face are fourteen in number, of which twelve are in pairs, viz: superior maxillary, malar, nasal, palate, lachrymal, and inferior turbinated bones - the vomer and inferior maxilla or mandible are the two single bones.
From this it will be seen that the bony framework of the face embraces some of the bones of the skull, as well as those of the face proper; thus, the region of the forehead is formed by the frontal bone, the temporal region is formed by the frontal, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal bones, all belonging to the cranium, and so on. The palate bones are called face bones, yet they are placed deep in the region of the mouth and nose.
The soft parts are likewise of importance. The skin, thin in some parts, thick in others, is in many places loosely attached and has inserted in it the muscles of expression. It is frequently the seat of disease, particularly of cancer.
On each side of the face are the parotid glands, often the site of inflammations.
The nerves are abundant and complex. They are, with the exception of the auricularis magnus, which comes from the second and third cervical, and to a slight extent the occipitalis minor from the second cervical, all derived from the cranial nerves and are both motor and sensory. The paralyses and neuralgias which affect them are among the most distressing and disfiguring of any in the body, wounds of the face producing paralysis of the muscles of expression.
The relatively small size of the face in relation to the cranium in the child as compared to that of the adult has already been alluded to (see page 8). The reasons for this are evident: dentition must be complete to insure the proper development of the jaws; the use of the special senses and the expression of the emotions cause the facial muscles to develop, and this in turn causes the bones to which they are attached to become more rugged in outline and larger in size. In old age, as the teeth are lost, the jaws are diminished in size by absorption of their alveolar processes.