This section is from the book "Applied Anatomy: The Construction Of The Human Body", by Gwilym G. Davis. Also available from Amazon: Applied anatomy: The construction of the human body.
Syphilis affects the larynx and produces ulcers. These may involve almost *any portion but usually they are anterior, involving the epiglottis. They are often associated with syphilitic manifestations in the mouth. Tuberculosis affects the posterior portion of the larynx and the bulb-like swellings of the arytenoids are almost pathognomonic. Ulcers when they occur are most marked posteriorly. This affection is associated with a blanching of the mucous membrane of the mouth and the presence of a white frothy mucus, which will lead the laryn-gologist to suspect the existence of the disease before a view of the larynx is obtained.
Laryngitis of a simple nature produces a reddening of the cords and a swelling of the membrane generally.
In aedema of the larynx, the serous effusion puffs up the loose mucous membrane, particularly of the aryepiglottic folds and epiglottis.
Tumors both benign and malignant affect the larynx and can at times be seen to arise from the vocal cords.
Paralysis of the muscles is most frequent from interference with the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This nerve supplies the abductor muscles and when paralyzed the cords tend to fall together. The nerve may be injured in operations on the neck or involved in cancer of the thyroid gland, or oesophagus, or in aneurisms. If one cord is paralyzed, the voice is lost temporarily, and when it returns, it is changed in character. Paralysis of both nerves does not cause entire loss of voice because the cords fall together, but may induce suffocative symptoms ending in death.
Fig. 160. - View of the larynx as seen in the laryngeal mirror.