This section is from the book "The Beverages of the Chinese; Kung-fu or Tauist Medical Gymnastics; the Population of China; A Modern Chinese Anatomist and A Chapter in Chinese Surgery.", by John Dudgeon. Also available from Amazon: Kung Fu, or Taoist Medical Gymnastics.
According to the ancients the lungs have six lobes and two small ears or lobules, in all eight; that the large intestines have the lan-men (ileo cæcal valve) above and the hang-men (anus) below; that the stomach has the pen-men (cardiac orifice) above and the yen-men (pylorus) below; that the small intestines have the pylorus above and the lan-men below; that the mouth of the bladder is the meatus urinarius (niao-k'ung ;
that the gall bladder is situated in the short lobe of the liver and that the liver has three lobes on the left and four on the right, in all seven: that there are the three chiao, or divisions - upper, middle and lower; that the pericardium surrounds the heart and that out of the heart issue three pairs, san-man (vessels?) one each going to the kidneys, the liver and the spleen.
I saw them thus as the result of examining a great many viscera: - The two vessels called the 'right and left art doors' unite to form one vessel which enters the heart and from the left side turns horizontally, and behind connects with the wei-tsung vessel (the all embracing or protecting vessel). The heart is placed below the air vessel, not below the lung vessel. The heart and the lobes of the lungs above are on the same level. The lung vessel divides into two branches which enter the two lobes of the lungs and go to the very bottom of them, and these vessels have joints (cartilaginous rings). The lungs contain very light white mucus or froth like bean curd. The large faces of the two large lobes are directed backwards; the small face is directed to the chest; above are four peaks (apices), also directed to the chest; below there is a small piece, also directed to the chest. The outer skin of the lungs has no openings; there are, therefore, not twenty-four holes for the passage of the air as the ancients say.
Above the k'o-moh diaphragm are only the lungs, heart and the two air doors right and left and nothing else. Above the diaphragm the chest is full of blood and hence called hsieh-fu, the 'blood reservoir.' All other things are below the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the partition between things above and below.
The liver has four lobes. The gall bladder is situated below the second lobe on the right side (Lobus Quadratus.)
The tsung-ti lies above the stomach, the liver is above the tsung-ti: The large face is directed upwards; behind it is connected into the spine. The body of the liver is solid and strong and cannot be compared with the intestines, stomach and bladder and therefore cannot contain blood (the ancients say the liver stores blood).
The upper mouth of the stomach is called the pen-men and lies right in the middle of the upper part of this organ; the zen-men lies also at the upper part of the stomach but on the right side. An inch to the left of the yen-men is the chin-men; inside the stomach to the left of the chin-men is a tubercle called the cho-shih; on the outside of the stomach on the left of the chin-men is the tsung-ti and the liver is attached to it above. The stomach lies in the abdomen, lying quite flat in the lung direction; the upper mouth is directed to the back, the lower mouth to the right; its base is directed to the abdomen and is connected with the outgoing water road.
In the middle of the spleen is a vessel called the lung vessel (a perforated gem in the form of a dragon), full of perforations which permits of water passing freely out, hence called lung-kwan. The vessels of the spleen and stomach enter together the spleen, in the middle is the lung vessel. I have in addition drawn the lung vessel, because it is the outgoing water road, in order that the student may clearly understand it. The lung vessel divides on both sides into outgoing water roads; the water percolates from the heart (spleen?) and enters the bladder and. becomes urine. In the middle of the outgoing water vessels there are returning (curious expression !) blood vessels, the remainder are all water vessels.
The c'hi-fu popularly called chi-kwan-yen cock's comb oil) covers by its lower border the small intestines. Inside the c'hi-fu and outside the small intestines is stored the original or primordial air of man (tan tien This original air is the solvent of the food (by entering the spleen and causing it to move on the stomach); man's vital force is here conserved.
The upper mouth of the large intestines is the lower mouth of the small intestines, and is called lan-men (ileo-cæcal valve) and the lower door of the large bowels is called hangmen (anus.)
The bladder has a lower but no upper mouth and the lower door is connected with the ching (penis). The lower opening of the seminal road ching-tao enters the chingThe seminal road in the female is called the uterus.
The seminal road connects above with the wei-tsung vessel and the spine.
In the hollow of the two kidneys are two air vessels connected with the two sides of the wei-tsung-kwan. The body of the kidney is solid and strong and inside are no openings and therefore cannot store semen as the ancients said.
The white piece at the back of the tongue is called hwei-yen and covers right and left air doors' and the how-men (larynx).
The wei-tsung vessel connects with the vessel coming out of the left side of the heart. This is the wei-tsung vessel, that is, air vessel and popularly called yao (lumbar) vessel (descending aorta). The slender vessel is the jung-tsung vessel which is a blood vessel. This jung-tsung vessel at the curvature (of the aorta) enters the hsieh-fu. The upper of the two middle branches connects with the c'hi-fu, the lower with the seminal road. At the upper part there are two vessels going to the right and left arms. Other two vessels right and left, enter the kidneys; the two lower ones the lower extremities, The eleven short vessels enter the spine.