This section is from the book "The Beverages of the Chinese; Kung-fu or Tauist Medical Gymnastics; the Population of China; A Modern Chinese Anatomist and A Chapter in Chinese Surgery.", by John Dudgeon. Also available from Amazon: Kung Fu, or Taoist Medical Gymnastics.
The right and left air doors are, as already stated, the common carotid arteries supposed by our author to be air vessels; the epiglottis is said to cover the two doors and also the how door, which is of course the known and always recognised opening to the lung vessel or trachea. There is great confusion in China regarding the how, whether it should be applied to the larynx or to the pharynx.
The wei-tsung vessel (carotid arteries) unites with the vessel coming out of the left side of the heart, that is, the aorta. It is carried to the left in an arched form and there are two vessels, one on the right and one on the left that connect with the arms; these are the subclavian arteries. The slender or thin and delicate vessel adjoining the aorta, drawn on the left side of the diagram, is the jung-tsung vessel, which is a blood vessel. Particular notice is taken of this fact that this vessel contains blood. The term is applied to the veins and here refers to the inferior vena cava. This vessel enters the blood receptacle called hsieh-fu, which according to our ideas should be the right auricle. From the right side of this vessel proceed two vessels, the upper one connects with the c'hi-fu, most probably the superior mesenteric, the lower with the seminal road, most likely the spermatic arteries. The eleven short vessels which connect with the spine are the intercostals. The spinal arteries do not rise directly from the descending aorta. The descending wei-tsung vessel is an air vessel and popularly called the lumbar vessel; this is the descending aorta. On the left of the illustration below are two vessels which connect with the two kidneys; these are the renal arteries, the two lower ones connect with the lower extremities; these are the right and left common iliac arteries. The description of the diaphragm is tolerably correct. He makes it the hsieh-fu, or blood residence, holding blood on its upper surface because of its shape and probably because the blood vessels pass through it. Ignorant of the true use of the arteries, it was necessary to create some such blood reservoir. Properly speaking this blood receptacle should be the right auricle of the heart.
Our author differs from the ancients in giving the stomach three instead of two doors. His description of the position of the stomach is substantially correct. He puts the 'pylorus down in the duodenum and so brings in his third door or opening. Our so-called pylorus, according to his diagram, is the chin-in#>i. He states correctly that the yen-men is situated at the upper and right side of the stomach which hardly tallies with its position in his diagram. He has completely inverted the uses of his chin-men and chin-kwan by which he thinks the juices of the stomach proceed from instead of their carrying juices to the alimentary canal. The division of the chin-kwan outside the chin-men into three divisions makes it apparent that by the chin-men he means the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts and the three ducts of which he speaks are doubtless those of the pancreas, common bile and cystic ducts. This part was rendered difficult of investigation by reason of the pancreas covering the chin-men, a part of which requires to be removed to expose the opening of its duct. Were it not that this description is so minute, one would suppose that he had transposed the characters chin and yen. From the juice coming out of the stomach, one part goes to form marrow, one part to be converted into blood and the watery juice goes to the lower division and from the centre of the liver passes over to the spleen. The wang-yen is doubtless the great omentum with its cribriform appearance, giving it the character of a fish net, through which the water is supposed to percolate. Were it not that he speaks of it as a vessel, the passing from the liver to the spleen probably refers to the lesser or gastrohepatic omentum.
From its connections the pancreas may with truth be called the tsung-ti' the body that unites and suspends all. The duodenum being the widest and most fixed parts of the small intestines, it may seem to be but a prolongation of the still more dilated part called by us the stomach, although the thickened ring of the pylorus, making this the narrowest part of the whole alimentary canal, ought to have suggested some more rational limit to the stomach. A desire to be different from the ancients may have impelled him to this. The three divisions into which the chin-kwan divide may be pancreatic, hepatic and systic ducts; this is on the supposition that the chin-men is the mark of the pancreatic duct. This explanation it is difficult to reconcile with the description and drawing. What is meant by the lower division entering the liver and from the centre of the liver passing over to the spleen is difficult to say, unless the chin-kwan be the hepatic and cystic ducts.
[From "The China Medical Missionary Journal" June, 1895.]