Syphilis not infrequently affects the nares in the tertiary stage. There is the formation of gummatous tissue with inflammation, beginning either in the mucous membrane or in the deeper parts. As the lesion is superficial there is usually ulceration, and this may involve the soft parts and the bones very extensively. There may arise in this way serious lesions, such as perforation of the septum, communication with the mouth, falling in of the nasal bones, etc. When the bones are affected the discharge is liable to be very putrid (Syphilitic ozcena). If healing occurs the cicatricial contraction may produce still further deformities.
Tuberculosis of the nares is not often observed, perhaps because the nares are not usually examined fully post mortem. Where the nares have been systematically examined, however, as by Dmochowski, tuberculosis is found in a considerable proportion of cases as a secondary result of tuberculosis elsewhere (21 times in 64 cases). The disease occurs chiefly in connection with tuberculosis of the lungs and larynx. The lesion presents itself either in the form of a more or less localized infiltration or of an ulcer, or the two conditions may coexist. The cartilaginous septum is perhaps the most frequent seat of tuberculous ulceration in the nose. The ulceration may sometimes result in the perforation of the septum. Lupus of the face not infrequently extends to the nasal mucous membrane. There are tubercles in the mucous membrane and ulceration.