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Diseases Of The Stomach | by Max Einhorn



A text-book for practitioners and students

TitleDiseases Of The Stomach
AuthorMax Einhorn
PublisherWilliam Wood And Company
Year1903
Copyright1903, William Wood And Company
AmazonDiseases of the Stomach

By Max Einhorn, M.D, Professor In Clinical Medicine At The New York Post-Graduate Medical School And Hospital; Visiting Physician To The German Dispensary

Third Revised Edition.

To My Friend And Teacher, C. A. Ewald, M.D. Professor Of Clinical Medicine In The University Or Berlin, This Book Is Respectfully Dedicated.

-Preface To The Third Edition
As early as the beginning of 1900 the second edition bad been exhausted; but the time being too near the last publication, the book was reprinted without any changes. The present edition has been enti...
-Chapter I. Stomach Anatomy And Physiology
Anatomy The stomach is a pyriform sac the longitudinal diameter of which is as a rule oblique in position. The larger part of the organ is situated higher up and more to the left than the smaller, ...
-Blood-Vessels, Lympliatics, And Nerves Of The Stomach
The arteries of the stomach originate from the coe-liac axis, the left coronary artery being a direct branch of this vessel, and the right a branch of the hepatic artery. These supply the smaller curv...
-Stomach Physiology
The stomach forms a part of the digestive tract, and in order to understand its functions thoroughly, it will be best to give a short review of the entire process of digestion. By the term digestion...
-The Gastric Juice
Spallanzani1 and Reaumur were the first to make experimental studies upon the gastric juice. They recognized its property of digesting meat and of exerting an antifermentative action. Prout in 1824 di...
-Gastric Digestion
The principal part played by gastric digestion consists in the conversion of albuminates into the more soluble forms of propeptones and peptones, which are the result of the combined action of hydroch...
-Intestinal Digestion
Although it is not my intention to give a detailed description of the process of intestinal digestion, it might still be useful briefly to discuss the further fate of the chyme. On the entrance of the...
-Chapter II. Methods Of Examination. The Interrogation Of The Patient
The examination of the patient begins with the narration of the course and symptoms of his trouble past and present. The history must state how long the trouble has existed, whether it began gradually...
-Methods Of Physical Examination
The examination of the patient should always begin with a thorough examination of his chest, for very often persons complaining of digestive troubles really suffer from diseases of other organs; while...
-Palpation
Palpation is one of the best and most important methods of examination. A good clinician is as a rule an artist in palpation. The best way to practise this method is as follows: The patient should ass...
-Percussion
In percussing the stomach it is best to use finger percussion and to practise this procedure without much force. The object of this method of examination is to determine if possible the situation of t...
-Sounds Of The Stomach. The Splashing Sound (Clapotage)
Whenever the stomach is filled partly with liquid and partly with gas it is possible to produce a splashing sound by striking the abdominal wall in the gastric region. This sound is distinctly audible...
-Sounds Of The Stomach. The Splashing Sound (Clapotage). Continued
2. When The Patient Is Drinking When The Patient Is Drinking we can hear, by putting our ear to the abdominal wall corresponding to the gastric region, a kind of dripping sound, arising from the pa...
-Oesophagoscopy
Oesophagoscopy in the diseases of the oesophagus and cardia has gained an important place in the last few years. All the literature of importance on this subject will be found in an article1 published...
-Gastroscopy
The object of this method of examination is to look into the stomach and to ascertain the condition of the gastric mucosa. This method was inaugurated by Mikulicz1 in 1881. The gastroscope is similar ...
-Gastrodiaphany, Or Transillumination Of The Stomach
The method of transilluminating living tissues was first applied by Cazenave in 1845. Milliot3 in 1867 tried to transilluminate the stomach of animals, and used for that purpose a narrow glass tube in...
-Roentgen Rays
Whether the Roentgen rays will be of material aid in the examination of the stomach, is quite difficult to state at the present time. As we have just seen, the gastrodiaphane enables us to recognize t...
-Examination Of The Functions Of The Stomach. Secretory Function
Ewald and Boas1 have studied the normal condition of gastric secretion in man. According to their observations, as soon as food enters the stomach, this organ begins to secrete its specific juice and ...
-Examination Of The Ingesta
1. The Reaction Is determined by means of litmus paper (blue and red). If the filtrate is acid it turns blue litmus paper red. 2. Hydrochloric Acid Many coloring matters undergo some change w...
-3. Lactic Acid
Uffelmann's Test The best test for lactic acid is made with the Uffelmann1 solution, which has always to be freshly prepared before use. It consists of a two-per-cent. carbolic-acid solution in wat...
-4. Acidity
The degree of acidity is examined by adding a drop of a one-per-cent. alcoholic solution of phenolphthalein to 10 c.c. of the filtrate and adding again as many cubic centimetres of a one-tenth normal ...
-5. Propeptone
The digestive action of the stomach results in the formation of propeptones and peptones from the albuminates. The best test for the presence of propeptone is the addition of an equal part of a satura...
-9-12. The Products Of Starch Digestion
The starchy derivatives resulting from the action of the ptyalin-digestion begun in the mouth and continued in the stomach, consist of erythrodextrin, ach-roodextrin, and maltose. A few drops of Lugol...
-Volatile Acids
The presence of fatty or volatile acids is recognized by boiling a few cubic centimetres of the filtrate in a test tube. A strip of wet, blue litmus paper is held over the vapors escaping at the top o...
-Estimation Of Free Hydrochloric Acid
This can be done by any one of the following methods: 1. Mintz's Method To 10 c.c. of the filtrate de-cinormal sodium hydrate is added in such a quantity that a drop of the mixture no longer res...
-Estimation Of Combined Hydrochloric Acid
The combined hydrochloric acid may be determined according to Toepfer by titrating with sodium alizarin sulphonate (1 per cent) until the appearance of a violet color, and deducting the found acidity ...
-Other More Complicated Methods For The Determination Of The Quantity Of Hydrochloric Acid
Method Of Hehner And Seemann 1 - 10 c.c. of the filtrate are neutralized with a decinormal standard solution of sodium hydrate, evaporated to dryness over the water bath, and calcined over the flam...
-Determination Of The Hydrochloric Acid Deficit
Honigmann and von Noorden1 advised that the amount of combined hydrochloric acid in cases in which free acid is lacking be determined by the amount of decinormal standard hydrochloric-acid solution re...
-Other Methods Of Testing The Gastric Secretion
Notwithstanding the great importance of the results derived from chemical analysis of the stomach contents obtained by means of the soft-rubber tube, this com-paratively new method has not as yet been...
-Other Methods Of Testing The Gastric Secretion. 4. Dunham's Thread Test
A new method of testing the acidity of the stomach contents has been devised by E. K. Dunham.1 It consists in having the patient swallow a thread colored with litmus, congo, or dimethyl-amido-azo-benz...
-Exact Determination Of The Quantity Of Chyme Within The Stomach
The quantity of chyme can, as a rule, be determined by having the patient empty the contents of his stomach through the tube by means of the expression method. The quantity can then be directly measur...
-Abnormal Constituents Of The Gastric Contents
The gastric contents are sometimes mixed with some abnormal products, which may be of importance with regard to diagnosis. They may contain mucus, bile and intestinal juice, blood, and pus. Mucus, ...
-Abnormal Constituents Of The Gastric Contents. Continued
4. Heller's Blood Test A small quantity of the gastric filtrate in a test tube is mixed with the same quantity of normal urine, and sodium-hydrate solution is added until a decided alkaline reactio...
-Microscopical Examination Of The Gastric Contents
(A) Gastric Juice The microscopical examination of the gastric secretion found when fasting shows normally some epithelial cells, cell nuclei, mucous corpuscles, amorphous material, and some micro-...
-Microscopical Examination Of The Gastric Contents. Part 2
(C) Mould Pellicles The part which micro-organisms (bacteria and mould fungi) play in the occurrence of pathological processes in the stomach has been variously interpreted by authors. Most clinici...
-Microscopical Examination Of The Gastric Contents. Part 3
(D) Small Pieces Of Gastric Mucosa In washing out the stomach (especially in the fasting condition) occasionally a small piece of gastric mucosa may be found in the wash-water. Such a small piece o...
-The Value And Limitations Of Examinations Of The Gastric Contents
When are examinations of the gastric contents necessary and when not? On the whole, I would say that they may be omitted whenever we are able to arrive at a positive diagnosis without them, and in all...
-Other Functions Of The Stomach. 1. The Absorptive Function Of The Stomach
The absorptive function of the stomach is as a rule tested by Penzoldt and Faber's1 method. One to two decigrams of potassium iodide are administered in a gelatin capsule and the saliva is examined ev...
-2. Motor Function Of The Stomach
Under motor function, as a rule, is understood the peristalsis of the stomach and the motion of the in-gesta caused thereby within the organ, as well as the transportation of the food from the stomach...
-Motor Function Of The Stomach. Continued
1. Ewald Und Einhorn Verhandlung. des Vereins f. innere Medicin, 1888, p. 58. Max Einhorn: Die neueren Methoden der MagenuntersuchuDg. New Yorker mediz. Monatschr., Marz, 1889. Ruber's Modif...
-Mechanical Function
Under the mechanical function of the stomach we understand those changes which arise in the physical condition of foods and are produced by motions of this organ. These motions are of two characters: ...
-Mechanical Function. Continued
(A) Physiological I have made several tests with the gastrograph on healthy people. The experiments show that the stomach is not so inactive mechanically as several authors believed, and that it...
-Chapter III. Diet
Dietetics comprise the study of nutrition in health and disease and of the substances serving for this purpose (the diet). All living organisms derive their nourishment from the vegetable kingdom, eit...
-Diet. Composition Of The Most Common Food Substances
The following table of the composition of the different foods and the amount of heat units they produce will make it easy to figure out whether a certain known quantity of taken nourishment is suffici...
-A. Animal Foods
These comprise besides the flesh (muscles) of the different mammals, birds, and fishes several other portions of their bodies, as, for instance, various glands, brain, lung, liver, etc. Oysters and lo...
-B. Vegetable Foods
All of these contain more or less carbohydrates, and the principal amount of carbohydrates of our diet is obtained from them. 1. Foods Rich In Proteids Leguminous foods (peas, beans, lentils, et...
-C. Liquid Foods
Water is consumed alone or together with certain other substances added for flavoring purposes, tea, coffee, etc. Tea in moderation is a stimulant and contains an aromatic oil to which it owes its ...
-Utilization Of Food
The amount of utilization of the food by the digestive tract has been studied by Rubner, and according to his investigations the residues of the different foodstuffs, that is, the indigestible matter,...
-Dietetics In Diseases Of The Stomach
Within the past ten years important facts have been discovered which are of the greatest value in the treatment of diseases of the stomach, and the influence of which can be perceived like a red threa...
-Dietetics In Diseases Of The Stomach. Continued
On the same principle, but more reliable and of greater value, is the scale constructed by Leube, according to the results obtained by emptying the stomach of patients by means of a tube, after differ...
-Dietetics In Acute Diseases Of The Stomach
Acute Gastric Catarrh The principle of rest here occupies the first place. In acute gastric catarrh, during the first two or three days, in which, as a rule, there is a total loss of appetite, only...
-Dietetics In Chronic Affections Of The Stomach
While in acute diseases of the stomach we pay most attention to giving rest to the organ - for here even an insufficient nutrition and the loss of several pounds of bodily weight are not of much impor...
-Dietetics In Chronic Affections Of The Stomach. Part 2
Although I do not favor strict and severe dietetic rules, nevertheless I deem the above-mentioned remarks as going too far. Unlike the normal healthy condition, in which instinct shows us the right me...
-Chapter IV. Local Treatment Of The Stomach. 1. Lavage
Gastric lavage, which is so frequently employed in the treatment of diseases of the stomach at the present day, was first introduced by Kussmaul 1 in 1867, who used for this purpose the stomach pump. ...
-Local Treatment Of The Stomach. 1. Lavage. (C) Friedlieb's Apparatus
Another very suitable 10 arrangement for washing out the stomach, especially if the patient has to perform the procedure himself, is an apparatus that has been in use in this country for many years, a...
-A Few Rides Concerning The Application Of Lavage
The introduction of the tube has to be performed as above stated, when we spoke of the introduction of the tube for the withdrawal of gastric contents for examination. During the introduction of the t...
-2. The Gastric Douche (Malbranc)
By the gastric douche is meant a sprinkling of the stomach with water under high pressure. This can be done by raising the funnel of the washing apparatus to a considerable height. Ewald's tube, which...
-3. The Gastric Spray (Eirihorri)
In cases in which it is necessary to apply medicaments of a toxic or irritating character to the gastric mucosa, the risk of poisonous effect can be prevented by the use of the spray, by means of whic...
-I. The Stomach Powder Blower (Einkorrt)
By means of the spray only soluble drugs can be applied, but not substances which are either soluble with great difficulty or not at all. In order to facilitate the introduction of the latter I1 have ...
-5. Electricity
In view of the firm foothold gained by electricity in the therapeusis of gastric and intestinal disorders, it will not appear superfluous to give a brief review of the history and physiological action...
-Direct Electrization Of The Stomach
Although the favorable influence of electricity, even percutaneously applied, is quite evident in numerous affections of the stomach and intestines, it, however, remains questionable whether any of th...
-Einhorn's Method
In order to facilitate the internal or direct electrization of the stomach I 3 have constructed an electrode on the same principle as the stomach bucket. This electrode once swallowed reaches the stom...
-Einhorn's Method. Part 2
Gastrogalvanization Negative pole within the stomach; small sponge electrode. Duration, eight minutes. First, two minutes below the ensiform process (during the first minute the current is graduall...
-Einhorn's Method. Part 3
I have made an extensive study of the physiological effects of direct electrization of the stomach and have published the results in several papers. From my experiments it follows conclusively: 1. ...
-Gastritis
Morbid Anatomy As gastritis as such hardly ever causes death, and inasmuch as the stomach after death quickly undergoes radical changes which destroy the true picture that had before existed, the m...
-Gastritis Phlegmonosa
Synonyms Gastritis phlegmonosa purulenta; purulent inflammation of the stomach. This affection usually runs an acute, and very rarely subacute course. The inflammatory process is situated in the...
-Gastrutis Toxica
Among the poisonous substances which directly affect the gastric mucous membrane, the following deserve special notice: Alcohol, phosphorus, arsenic, potassium cyanide, corrosive sublimate, ni...
-2. Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica
Definition Chronic inflammation of the gastric mucous membrane, causing various disturbances in the act of digestion. Pathological Anatomy The mucosa is usually covered with a thick layer of ...
-Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica. Part 2
Pain As a rule intense pains are absent. There is a mere sensation of discomfort and sensitiveness in the gastric region, which may increase after meals, more especially after ingestion of coarse f...
-Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica. Part 3
Absorption Most writers assert that the absorption is retarded. It seems to me, however, that this rule does not apply to all substances. On examining the absorptive power in several cases of chron...
-Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica. Part 4
Prognosis The prognosis of a genuine chronic gastritis is not bad. A rational treatment succeeds, as a rule, in either curing or materially improving the patient. The ailment is, however, by no mea...
-Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica. Part 5
Hygienic Regimen Besides the diet it is of importance that the patient should lead a rational hygienic life. The business hours should not be too long, and plenty of exercise should be advised. Wal...
-Chronic Gastric Catarrh - Gastritis Glandularis Chronica. Part 6
3. Mineral Springs There are many mineral springs, the waters of which have a decided beneficial influence upon the chronic gastric catarrh. Many patients going to these watering-places and drinkin...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach
Synonyms Ulcus pepticum seu rodens; ulcus ven-triculi rotundum; ulcus simplex; ulcus ventriculi chronicum perforans. Definition Gastric ulcer la a disease characterized by a more or less deep...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 2
Lesions In The Gastric Mucosa In these instances the defect did not heal and a condition similar to a real ulcer was established. In some of the animals even perforation of the ulcer took place. Ko...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 3
Other Theories As To The Origin Of Gastric Ulcer As is well known, erosions of the gastric mucosa are found in chronic gastritis and in other diseases complicated with disturbances of circulation. ...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 4
Morbid Anatomy The peptic ulcer is found only in those regions which are exposed to the gastric juice. Aside from the stomach it is met with in the lowest part of the oesophagus and in the upper pa...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 5
Number As regards the number of ulcers, according to Brinton, 2 or more are present in 1 out of every 5 cases, or about 21 per cent. Out of 97 such plural cases (corresponding to 463 instances of u...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 6
1. Pain Pain is the most frequent and characteristic of all the symptoms. In the earlier stage of the disease there is a mere feeling of weight or tightness in the epigastric region. Sometimes the ...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 7
2. Vomiting Vomiting in gastric ulcer occurs in nearly the same proportion of cases as pain. As a rule, it is absent during the first period of the disease, and appears somewhat later than the pain...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 8
4. Appetite Although patients with gastric ulcer partake of very small quantities of food, the appetite per se is by no means decreased. It is merely on account of the pains that the patients are a...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 9
Latent Ulcer All the above symptoms of gastric ulcer may at times be missing, and the sickness may remain concealed. It is well known that scars resulting from ulcer are found at autopsies in the s...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 10
About two days later, during which period the offensive smell constantly persisted with undiminished strength, the patient brought up during several spasmodic coughing-spells about one pint and a half...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 11
Diagnosis In cases where all the symptoms of gastric ulcer are present no difficulty will be experienced in the diagnosis. It frequently happens, however, that only one or two of the above-describe...
-Ulcer Of The Stomach. Part 12
Localization Of The Ulcer As above mentioned in speaking of the pathology, the ulcer may be situated at different points of the stomach walls, or at the pylorus, the beginning of the duodenum, the ...
-Treatment Of Gastric Ulcer
Cruveilhier, to whom we are indebted for the first thorough and accurate description of gastric ulcer, recommended milk as the most suitable food in this condition, and although many decades have sinc...
-Gastric Hemorrhage
In cases of hemorrhage from the stomach the treatment; is the same as in the severe type of ulcer, with the exception that ice-cold ap-plications are made over the stomach instead of the warm poultice...
-Gastric Hemorrhage. Continued
Symptomatoloyy The disease begins with severe large gastric hemorrhages which recur at short intervals. In the midst of health the patient is suddenly overcome with vomiting of very large quantitie...
-Surgical Procedures In The Treatment Of Gastric Ulcer And Its Sequelae
Gastric ulcer may occasionally take a very obstinate course, not being amenable to medical treatment. Again, its complications, hemorrhage (which may become very abundant or frequent) and perforation,...
-Erosions Of The Stomach
Definition A condition in which the gastric mucous membrane becomes the seat of small superficial exfoliations. General Remarks As is well known, the term erosion signifies a defect of supe...
-Erosions Of The Stomach. Part 2
Emaciation Most cases lose in flesh during the first period of their sickness, but thereafter keep up their weight quite constantly. They look rather thin in the face (the jaws protrude, the cheeks...
-Erosions Of The Stomach. Part 3
Condition Of The Gastric Juice In most cases one encounters a decrease in the HC1 secretion and in the acidity of the stomach contents. In some there is always found a considerable amount of mucus....
-Erosions Of The Stomach. Part 4
Case II. April 19th, 1893 B. M. S------, aged 26, merchant, complains for two and a half yearn of digestive troubles. At first patient had lack of appetite, pains after meals, and nausea, but no vo...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult)
Definition Malignant epithelial growth within the stomach. Etiology The stomach is more frequently affected with cancer than any other organ of the body. Vir-chow's1 statistics of all the can...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 2
Age As regards the age at which gastric cancer occurs, Brinton collected 600 cases, the ages of which at death averaged 50 years. The greater part (three-quarters, or 435) of these 600 cases fell i...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 3
Cause Many factors have been regarded as playing an important part in the origin of cancer. Thus a trauma in the gastric region has frequently been held responsible for a cancerous affection. There...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 4
1. Epithelioma The adeno-carcinoma or epithelioma forms soft tumors, presenting quite marked nodules and sloughing very slowly. It consists of pseudo-glandular tubuli, surrounded by connective tiss...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 5
Topographical Relations Of Cancer Of The Stomach. Size As regards size, two varieties of tumors may be distinguished. One is characterized by growing very little above the surface and involving lar...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 6
Secondary Changes Accompanying Cancer Of The Stomach Aside from the cancerous lesions, the affected area of the stomach is usually the seat of various anatomical changes. Thus thickening of the muc...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 7
A. General Symptoms These are partly subjective, partly objective, and may be enumerated as follows: 1. Anorexia Anorexia, or loss of appetite, is a very frequent although not very characteri...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 8
4. Hemorrhage Vomiting of blood is observed, according to Brinton, in about forty-two per cent of the cases of gastric cancer. The blood is sometimes ejected in sufficiently large quantity to be re...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 9
6. Fever The occurrence of fever in gastric cancer does not belong to the regular symptoms. It is, however, met with oftener than is generally believed. It usually appears in the latest stages of t...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 10
10. Metastases As mentioned above in speaking of pathology, metastatic tumors frequently occur. Thus enlarged glands of hard consistence and nodular character are suggestive of cancerous deposits. ...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 11
Objective Symptoms 1. Swallowing Sound The swallowing sound, if not absent, is frequently retarded, and heard about twenty seconds after swallowing of water, while normally it should be heard af...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 12
3. Retention Of Food Within The Oesophagus In most instances of cardiac stenosis some of the food particles remain within the oesophagus above the ste--nosed spot. As a rule, they become decomposed...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 13
(C) Stomach Proper. Subjective Symptoms 1. Pains. A constant gnawing pain in the scrobiculus cordis radiating to the back is frequently found present. 2. Anorexia is very marked. Objective Sympt...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 14
Lactic Acid Although it was known that the organic acids are increased in cancer of the stomach, and that lactic acid frequently occurs, Boas1 must be credited with laying stress upon the presence ...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 15
1. Ulcer In ulcer there is, as a rule, clear tongue, a circumscribed spot painful to pressure, some connection of the pains with the period of gastric digestion, intervals perfectly free from pain,...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 16
A. Surgical Interference Owing to the futility of medicinal treatment, surgical intervention has been invoked, and several bold operations have been devised, which may be resorted to in appropriate...
-Cancer Of The Stomach (Carcinoma Ventricult). Part 17
B. Medical Treatment The medical treatment has the following points in view: To strengthen the organism by a proper mode of nourishment, thereby prolonging life as much as possible, and to alleviat...
-Chapter IX. Functional Diseases With Variable Lesions. Hypersecretion. Hyperacidity; Hypersecretion. Hyperchlorhydria
Synonyms Hyperacidity; hypersecretion. Definition The term hyperchlorhydria is applied to a condition in which the gastric secretion is mora acid than normally and richer in ferments. Frequen...
-Hypersecretion. Hyperacidity; Hypersecretion. Hyperchlorhydria. Part 2
Objective Symptoms On palpation the gastric region is frequently found tender on pressure, although not actually painful, this tenderness not being limited to one circumscribed spot, but to a large...
-Hypersecretion. Hyperacidity; Hypersecretion. Hyperchlorhydria. Part 3
Treatment. Hygienic Regimen In view of the fact that hyperchlorhydria is most frequently caused by too much mental work, the daily life of the patient as to amount of work, bodily exercise, mental ...
-Gastroxynsis. Gastrosuccorrhoea Continua Periodica (Reichmann)
Synonyms Gastroxynsis (Rossbach); periodic continuous flow of gastric juice. Definition Gastrosuccorrhoea continua periodica is a condition characterized by the acute appearance of a constant...
-Gastroxynsis. Gastrosuccorrhoea Continua Periodica (Reichmann). Continued
Present Condition. July 22d, 1895 Chest organs normal. The palpation of the abdomen does not reveal any pathological condition. The splashing sound can be easily produced in the gastric region, and...
-Chronic Continuous Flow Of Gastric Juice. Gastrosuccorrhoea Continua Chronica (Reichmanu)
Synonyms Chronic continuous flow of gastric juice: Reichmann's disease. Definition Reichmann,1 in 1882, described under the above name a disorder which is characterized by a constant secretio...
-Chronic Continuous Flow Of Gastric Juice. Continued
Microscopically no sarcinae or other signs of decomposition are found. Frequently cell nuclei are met with in large numbers. In examining the patient one hour after Ewald's test breakfast, the gastric...
-Chronic Continuous Flow Of Gastric Juice. Gastrosuccorrhoea Continua Chronica. Continued
Lavage Reichmann, and later Riegel, recommend the use of lavage of the stomach as the best means of improving its condition. While Riegel washes out the stomach in the evening six to seven hours af...
-Atrophy Of The Stomach. Achylia Gastrica
Synonyms Atrophy of the stomach; anadenia ventriculi; phthisis ventriculi. Definition This term embraces a class of cases in which there is a permanent absence of gastric secretion. Genera...
-Atrophy Of The Stomach. Achylia Gastrica. Part 2
Achylia Gastrica, Combined With Rumination August R------, 52 years of age, carpenter, was always well and had not consulted a physician for the last twenty years. Suffered in his boyhood from freq...
-Atrophy Of The Stomach. Achylia Gastrica. Part 3
October 27th, 1892 Examination of the stomach one hour after Ewald's test breakfast: HC1 = 0; lactic acid = 0; acidity = 6; rennet = 0; biuret reaction = 0; erythrodextrin = 0; sugar + The quantity...
-Atrophy Of The Stomach. Achylia Gastrica. Part 4
November 21st, 1894 Examination of the stomach one hour after Ewald's test breakfast: HC1 = 0; acidity = 2; lactic acid = 0; rennet = 0; pepsin = 0; biuret reaction = 0; erythrodextrin = 0; sugar +...
-Atrophy Of The Stomach. Achylia Gastrica. Part 5
The usual beverages, as tea, coffee, cacao with milk and sugar, besides small quantities of beer or stout, may be allowed. Outline Of Diet In Achylia Gastrica Calories....
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency
Synonyms Dilatation of the stomach; ectasia ventriculi; gastric insufficiency; stenosis of the pylorus. Definition An affection characterized by the constant presence of food in the stomach, ...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 2
Ischochymia Due To Atony In this condition the residue of chyme found in the stomach in the fasting state consists of some liquid and fine particles of food. Even if coarse particles of food (as, f...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 3
Benign Stenosis Of The Pylorus Only rarely can the pylorus be palpated as a small oval tumor (of small hen's egg size); in most instances the pylorus cannot be felt. All cases reveal a long period ...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 4
February 11th, 13th, And 15th Intragastric galvanization was applied without, however, materially improving the patient's condition. The diagnosis of benign stenosis of the pylorus was made and an ...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 5
Malignant Stenosis Of The Pylorus Or Cancerous Stenosis Stenosis of the pylorus due to carcinoma is of frequent occurrence, and is developed sooner or later in the course of most cancers of the sto...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 6
April 19th Patient was examined one hour after Ewald's test breakfast. There was a considerable amount of bile in the gastric contents, which did not contain any food from the previous day. Chemica...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 7
April 10th Patient was examined one hour after Ewald's test breakfast. There was a considerable amount of bile in the gastric contents, which did not contain any food from the previous day. Chemica...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 8
Treatment In the treatment of ischochymia it is necessary, first of all, to ascertain the cause of the stagnation of food in the stomach. If this be due to a far-advanced stenosis of the pylorus...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Complications
Tetany The occurrence of tonic and clonic spasms in the flexors of the arms, in the muscles of the calf, and in the muscles of the abdomen as a complication of dilatation of the stomach (ischochy...
-Ischochymia. Dilatation Of The Stomach; Gastric Insufficiency. Part 10
2. The Second Theory The Second Theory, advanced by Germain See,1 explains these tonic and clonic convulsions as a reflex action from the nerves of the stomach. Friedrich Muller is also in favor of...
-Chapter XII. Abnormal Conditions With Reference To The Size, Shape, And Position Of The Stomach
Abnormalities In The Size Of The Stomach In the normal state, the size or capacity of the stomach varies within wide limits, and this is more marked in pathological conditions. The following figure...
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease
Definition Downward displacement of the stomach, right kidney, and other organs of the abdominal cavity, attended with digestive disturbances. General Remarks Descent of the stomach as well a...
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease. Part 2
Symptomatology It is well known that enteroptosis may exist without giving rise to any symptoms whatever. In most instances, however, various morbid manifestations are encountered. The latter are n...
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease. Part 3
While Israel is of the opinion that on deep inspiration even a normal kidney may be partly felt by this method of examination, Glenard considers all cases in which the kidney can be perceived by palpa...
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease. Part 4
Dietetic Treatment In all cases of enteroptosis it is best to diminish the amount of fluids taken, i.e., care must be taken that the patient does not drink water, tea, coffee, or other beverages (b...
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease. Part 5
Hydrotherapeutic Measures In connection with the general hydrotherapeutic treatment the abdominal muscles as well as the digestive tract may be favorably influenced by direct applications of water....
-Enteroptosis, Or Glenard's Disease. Part 6
Special Gymnastics The abdominal muscles may be strengthened by calling them into frequent and strong activity. For this purpose rotation of the trunk toward both sides while standing still, as wel...
-Chapter XIII. Nervous Affections Of The Stomach
General Remarks Deviations from the normal process of gastric digestion not based upon pathologico-anatomical changes are considered as gastric neuroses. We are accustomed to ascribe the different ...
-Sensory Gastric Neuroses
For the sake of greater clearness sensory gastric neuroses are best divided into two main groups: (a) Comprising abnormal sensations of a more or less general character; (6) special sensations emanati...
-Bulimia
Bulimia ( ox,hunger) or cynorexia ( dog,appetite), or hyperorexia, denotes a condition in which the feeling of hunger is enhanced, appearing more frequently and in a more intense degree than in the ...
-Parorexia (Perversion Of Appetite)
The appetite is sometimes manifested for special and peculiar kinds of food, and to this condition the name parorexia has been applied. There exist three degrees of parorexia: 1. Malaria: an increased...
-Polyphagia
Polyphagia denotes a condition in which excessive amounts of food have to be taken in order to satisfy the feeling of hunger. Polyphagia is met with in the same conditions as bulimia, and especially i...
-Akoria
By akoria is designated the absence of the sensation of satiety ( I feel satiated). The main symptom of this condition consists in the loss of the feeling a person normally experiences at the end of ...
-Nervous Anorexia
Under the term anorexia ( appetite) is understood a complete absence of the sensation of hunger, combined with loss of appetite. While anorexia is met with in almost all organic as well as functiona...
-(B) Special Sensations Within The Stomach Itself
In its normal state the stomach barely transmits any sensations whatever to our consciousness. As a rule we lose track of the food we take as soon as it has passed the palate and has been swallowed. P...
-Gastric Idiosyncrasies
We sometimes meet with persons who manifest an idiosyncrasy toward certain substances, the ingestion of which gives rise to symptoms emanating from the alimentary tract alone or combined with other di...
-Hyperesthesia Of The Stomach
In hyperaesthesia of the stomach there is an abnormal sensitiveness of the mucous membrane even after the ingestion of ordinary food. The patient experiences a sensation of fulness, of slight burning,...
-Gastralgia. Cardialgia, Gastrospasmus, Gastrodynia
Synonyms Cardialgia, gastrospasmus, and gastrodynia. By the term gastralgia is designated the occurrence of attacks of pains of more or less severity in the gastric and epigastric regions. These...
-Gastralgia. Cardialgia, Gastrospasmus, Gastrodynia. Part 2
Gustralyia Of Stomachic Origin Besides occurring in connection with gastric affection, as for instance ulcer, cancer, hyperchlorhydria, peritonitic adhesions, gastralgia may exist as a primary affe...
-Gastralgia. Cardialgia, Gastrospasmus, Gastrodynia. Part 3
Constitutional Gastralgia Constitutional gastralgia is caused by some abnormal condition of the blood, due either to infection, intoxication, or malnutrition. Among the infections, malaria is frequ...
-Gastralgokenosis (Boas)
Under the name of gastralgokenosis Boas1 described a condition in which there is present pain in the stomach when it becomes empty. Partaking of food very soon allays the pain. This condition may appe...
-Motor Neuroses
Physiologically as soon as food has been swallowed and has passed the pharynx, the further motion of the bolus is accomplished without our consciousness. We know from experience that the peristaltic a...
-Spasm Of The Cardia (Cardiospasmus)
Cardiospasmus represents a condition in which there is a spasmodic contraction of the cardia and the lower part of the oesophagus, causing pain and dysphagia, and not dependent upon an anatomical lesi...
-Spasm Of The Cardia (Cardiospasmus). Continued
Examination Of The Stomach And Oesophagus 1. October 25tb, 1888, at 8 a.m.: Patient drank coffee one hour before. As soon as a part of the stomach tube was pushed into the oesophagus a coffee-brown...
-Eructation
The frequent expulsion of gas from the stomach through the mouth is known as eructation or belching. While this condition may accompany the most varied affections of the stomach, it may also occur alo...
-Pyrosis
By the term pyrosis is designated the ejection of chyme from the stomach into the oesophagus. As a rule, a burning sensation is then felt at the pit of the stomach, which is also known under the name ...
-Regurgitation
Regurgitation denotes a condition in which either liquids or liquids mixed with solid food particles are ejected in small portions from the stomach into the mouth. These contents are, as a rule, spit ...
-Rumination. Merycism
Synonyms Merycism, chewing the cud. By rumination is designated a condition in which the food returns, without nausea, in small portions, from the stomach through the oesophagus into the mouth, s...
-Rumination. Merycism. Part 2
Duration The duration of raerycisra is very variable; sometimes there is rumination going on uninterruptedly during the whole of life. Often it appears in the form of attacks, periods of rumination...
-Rumination. Merycism. Part 3
Examinations Of The Stomach 1. During the rumination period, September 15th, 1888. One hour after Ewald's test breakfast: HC1 +; acidity = 50; erythrodextrin +; achroodextrin + On the same d...
-Nervous Vomiting (Vomitus Nervosus)
The process of vomiting serves to empty the stomach of its contents by the shortest way, that is, through the oesophagus and mouth. The mechanism of this action is very complicated and a large number ...
-Nervous Vomiting (Vomitus Nervosus). Part 2
Juvenile Vomiting This condition occurs in young persons attending school, especially if they are overworked. Symptoms of cardialgia and vomiting develop, the latter appearing either once or twice ...
-Nervous Vomiting (Vomitus Nervosus). Part 3
Reflex Vomiting Nervous vomiting frequently occurs as a result of derangements of various other organs. Thus abnormal conditions of the pharynx, an elongated uvula, disorders of the genito-urinary ...
-Pneumatosis
Under the name gastric pneumatosis are classified a group of cases in which the stomach is distended with gas (air), giving rise to a sensation of marked tension and frequently also to shortness of br...
-Hypanakinesis Ventriculi
I have applied the term hypanakinesis to a condition in which the mechanical function of the stomach is greatly reduced. If tested with the gastrograph there are found only three or four breaks and ...
-Peristaltic Restlessness Of The Stomach (Kussmaul1), Tormina Ventriculi Nervosa
Under this heading are grouped those cases in which there is not only an increased motor (mechanical) activity of the stomach, but in which the peristaltic movements are distinctly visible. In this...
-Antiperistaltic Restlessness Of The Stomach
Glax,1 Schiitz,2 and Cahn3 have described cases in which the waves over the stomach moved from right to left, and they therefore designated this condition as antiperistaltic restlessness of the stoma...
-Incontinentia Pylori (Incontinence Of The Pylorus)
Incontinence of the pylorus was first described by L. de Sere 1 and later by Ebstein.2 The pylorus may be incompetent, first, when unyielding neoplasms involve this portion of the stomach; secondly, w...
-Pylorospasmus
A spasmodic contraction of the pylorus without organic disease has been described by Bentejac.1 He reports the following case: A man, 59 years old, swallowed a glassful of kerosene by mistake. Afte...
-Atony Of The Stomach. Gastric Insufficiency
Synonyms Gastric insufficiency (Rosenbach1); myasthenia ventriculi (Boas). Atony of the stomach designates a condition in which the muscular action of the organ is retarded and weakened. It occu...
-Nervous Dyspepsial (Leube)
Leube2 originated the name of nervous dyspepsia (neurasthenia gastrica of Ewald) to describe a condition characterized by manifold subjective symptoms, which appear during the act of digestion, but ca...
-Nervous Dyspepsial (Leube). Continued
Diagnosis The presence of symptoms of general neurasthenia, and especially of those attributable to the digestive tract without the existence of a real organic trouble, will establish the diagnosis...
-Chapter XIV. The Condition Of The Stomach In Diseases Of Other Organs
There are but few diseases which are not attended to a greater or less extent with gastric symptoms. Every constitutional or local disease, febrile and afebrile processes, are all more or less complic...
-Syphilis Of The Stomach
Dyspeptic symptoms not infrequently occur in the secondary and tertiary stages of syphilis. While in the secondary stage, however, the digestive disturbances are attributable to the constitutional con...
-Syphilis Of The Stomach. Continued
Group I (syphilitic ulcer of the stomach) is chiefly represented clinically in the literature. I have observed two cases belonging to this class. In the first case (Mrs. A. K.) other signs of terti...
-Diseases Of The Blood
In chlorosis and anoemia the gastric symptoms frequently play an important part. They all, as a rule, belong to the neurotic derangements of the stomach. Thus anorexia, gastral-gia, hyperesthesia of t...
-Dyspeptic Asthma
Asthma, due to digestive disturbances, was first described by Henoch1 under the name of asthma dyspepticum. The original communication of this clinician referred to its occurrence during acute digesti...
-Diseases Of The Liver
Like affections of the heart, disturbances of the liver are also almost always accompanied by gastric symptoms, due to a hyperaemic condition of the stomach. Thus in icterus and cirrhosis of the liver...
-Diseases Of The Skin
This subject, although of particular interest, has as yet received but very little attention. Pidoux2 considered all cases of dyspepsia due to a herpetic state of the system. The appearance of eczema,...







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