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Research In Physiopathology As Basis Of Guided Chemotherapy With Special Application To Cancer | by Emanuel Revici



This book presents a framework for analysing cancer and other concerns, also a methodology for biologically guided therapy that can be employed for such concerns based under various new concepts is introduced.

TitleResearch In Physiopathology As Basis Of Guided Chemotherapy With Special Application To Cancer
AuthorEmanuel Revici
PublisherD. Van Nostrand Company, Inc
Year1961
Copyright1962, Emanuel Revici
AmazonResearch In Physiopathology

This book is dedicated to My Wife

-Foreword. Theory And Facts
Few other pathological conditions have aroused, as cancer has, the interest of so many scientific disciplines. Problems related to cancer have become of continuously increasing concern in virtually ev...
-The Present State Of The Cancer Problem
Surgery in cancer can be considered to have arrived now at or near its maximum efficiency. Thanks to progress in operative techniques, and to advances in pre- and post operative care, ultraradical sur...
-Chapter 1. Basic Concepts Of Organization
The intellectual mechanism used by man to acquire knowledge has led him to recognize the existence of relationships between the various manifestations encountered in nature. He has employed abstractio...
-Homotropy And Heterotropy In Nature
As man attempted to recognize order in the constant changes seen in nature, he noted certain patterns that appeared to indicate definite laws of nature. Some of these laws have been observed to oper...
-The Atom
The role of the two opposing tendencies in atom organization becomes clear when we study the relationship between the forces that form this entity. Each atom consists of a positively charged nucleus s...
-Fulfillment Of Quantum And Electrostatic Forces
There are diverse consequences from the operation of quantum and electrostatic forces in the atom. The partial fulfillment of the electrostatic forces keeps the nucleus and electrons together in the a...
-Quantum And Electrostatic Forces In Molecules
Alternate operation of electrostatic and quantum forces leads to the organization of atoms into molecules. The quantum forces in the molecules intervene to permit organization of these entities so tha...
-Micelles
A distinctive type of new entity results from the bonding of molecular formations with simpler constituents, such as ions or ionized molecules. To this type of entity we have applied the name of mice...
-Organization Of Motion As Heterotropic Achievement
An interesting aspect of the concept presented above is the influence of homotropic and heterotropic forces upon the motion of particles within the organizational framework. At random mobility must be...
-Levels, Entities And Constituent Parts
As already noted, we defined an entity through its structural and functional individuality. We used the term level to indicate a conceptual grouping of entities having the same basic constitution, s...
-Chapter 2. Biological Entities
With the concept of hierarchic organization, it becomes possible to gain a new insight into, and understanding of, the biological realm. In the classical view, just as simple substances in nature a...
-Biological Realm
Before going further in trying to analyze submorphologic hierarchic entities, one problem was to establish the limits of the biological realm itself. The question was, how far below the morphological ...
-Nucleolus
The concept that plural groupings can enter into the principal part of the nucleus puts the role of the nucleolus in a new light. It was accepted for a long time that the nucleolus represents only the...
-Phylogenetic Development
Hierarchic organization, when related to time, would appear to correspond to evolution. The concept of ontogenesis reproducing phylogenesis, appears in a new light when analyzed in accordance with hie...
-Constants In Phylogenetic Development
The concept that matter in general is the expression of the heterotropic trend permits us to explain further some of its characteristics which have been of great importance in biological development. ...
-Multiplication of Biological Entities
The hierarchic organization of organisms, with the conservation of successive entities, puts the problem of entity multiplication in a new light. According to the hierarchic organization concept, the ...
-Life And Death
We have seen that the term biological realm can be applied to hierarchic development starting from the N C-N C radicals. We have employed this term for didactic convenience although it is unrelated ...
-Maintenance Of Constants
To study the mechanism used to maintain constants, we must define exactly what constancy means. According to Cannon's principle of homeostasis, constants have been considered to correspond to a dynami...
-Dualism
The concept of dynamic oscillatory balance is of great importance in the study of biological phenomena. Coupled factors with opposite properties characterize all constants and are involved both in the...
-Chapter 3. Cancer As An Organized Condition
In the concept now most widely accepted, cancer is considered to be the result of abnormal changes within cells. Although it is admitted that the disease may have different etiologies, it is the cell ...
-Different Phases of Cancer
Precancerous Phase In the precancerous phase, the disease is not clinically apparent. Yet this phase has been recognized as pathogenic in experimental carcinogenesis and its characteristic changes ...
-Chapter 4. Dualism
We have observed above, dualism prevails in nature. The concept of an oscillatory dynamic balance—the result of alternate operation of opposed forces—has been of special value in the study of most of ...
-Pain And Acid Base Balance Changes
When changes in pathological pain intensity were studied in relation to changes of the urinary pH, a correlation could be established in the majority of cases. Two opposite kinds of relationship were ...
-Acidifying And Alkalizing Agents
We next demonstrated the cause effect correlation between acid base changes and variations in the intensity of pain. Administration of acidifying or alkalizing substances could induce the same changes...
-Acid And Alkaline Symptoms. Itching
The problem of itching is interesting from other than the therapeutic point of view, since little is known regarding the nature and cause of this condition. Various hypotheses have been offered but ha...
-Acid And Alkaline Symptoms. Vertigo
Vertigo has been of special interest in our research. While it can be induced by various etiological factors, a basic dualism in its pathogenesis is evident. Many patients with vertigo have been fo...
-Acid And Alkaline Symptoms. Impaired Hearing
In studying the various otological problems, B. Welt and I noted that many patients with impaired hearing experienced variations in auditive acuity at different times of the day, or even in conjunctio...
-Acid And Alkaline Symptoms. Manic Depressive Condition
We have studied the relationship between intensity of manifestations and systemic acid base balance of the body in another group of subjects with various mental disorders. Of all the cases studied, th...
-Acid And Alkaline Symptoms. Dyspnea
Certain characteristics of dyspnea suggested that this symptom might be explored by the same means employed in studying pain associated with pathological tissue changes. A regular pattern is observed ...
-Dualistic Patterns at Other Levels. Cellular Level
Cytological studies have revealed that some characteristics of the cell, other than those typifying the cancerous anomaly itself, exhibit dual patterns. For the cellular level, they could ultimately b...
-Systemic Analyses. Blood and Urine
Changes in urine or blood values were followed in hundreds of subjects for long periods, even years. It appeared essential to plot the data graphically. An average value, obtained from a significant n...
-Urinary Patterns
Various urinalyses were performed during sufficient lengths of time on a larger number of subjects considered to be normal. For each test, an average value was thus obtained. This average value served...
-Fundamental Off Balances
When the curves of various analyses obtained at the same time for the same subject were checked, an interesting relationship was found. In patients with small localized tumors, only some of the ana...
-Place Of Dualism In Cancer Physiopathology
After recognizing a dual pattern in most manifestations of cancer, the problem was to consider the relationship between this dualism and cancer itself. One critical observation was that a pattern i...
-Chapter 5. The Constituents
Hierarchic organization and dualism have opened the way for a study of the body constituents in an attempt to systematize them and their functioning in accordance with these two concepts. In this rese...
-Periods
Coming back to the influence exerted by the elements on test manifestations, we found that elements of the same series show some similar properties when acting at a certain level of organization, but ...
-Periodic Chart Of The Elements
The knowledge that copper belongs to the cellular level, because of the period to which its belongs, could explain this peculiarity. The organism does not have too much copper although the amount of i...
-Chapter 6. Lipids And Lipoids
Two different pathways, one theoretical and the other experimental, have led us to consider lipids as possibly the most important constituents involved in the dualistic patterns of physiopathological ...
-Classification Of Lipoids
Lipoids may be subdivided according to different criteria. I. According to the polar group. A. Lipoids classified according to the nature of their polar group. 1. Lipo carboxylic acids (-COOH...
-Physical Lipoidic Properties. Solubility
Solubility represents the first and most important of these lipoidic properties. Characteristically, a lipoid has a greater solubility in neutral solvents than in water. This is explained by the fact ...
-Molecular Layer Formation
Other fundamental characteristics result from the different solubility properties of the two parts, polar and nonpolar, forming a lipoid. Introduced in a diphasic medium in which one phase is water an...
-Lipidic System
The relative insolubility of the lipids in water and their solubility in neutral solvents has permitted us to separate these substances as a group from the other constituents of organisms. For more th...
-First Lipoidic Members In Fatty Acids
Besides their constructive role in establishing boundary formations, fatty acids appear to serve various other purposes in the organism. They can be used as caloric metabolites, and they play an activ...
-Caloric Metabolism
Although all the fatty acids are ultimately used by different organisms as caloric metabolites, the saturated and monoethenic members are most important from this point of view. Among the saturated an...
-Double Bonds
There has been some tendency to regard the double bond as a weak, easily broken point of the molecule. Actually, it emerges as an important center of activity. With its capacity to become a semipolar ...
-First Lipoidic Members In Abnormal Fatty Acids
The study of the relationship between abnormal conditions and lipids has progressively led us to consider the existence of qualitative changes in these lipids, besides the quantitative ones. The exist...
-The Anti Fatty Acids. Glycerol And Glycerophosphoric Acid
It is classically accepted that the intestinal absorption and circulation of fatty acids is made through bonding to various substances. The analysis of this absorption shows, however, that different f...
-Steroids
A fundamental role of these substances in biology is determined by the fact that they are polycyclic. This leads us to consider the role of the ring itself in reactivity, as shown by a study of the st...
-Sex Hormones
This group of steroids has two polar groups, one at C3 and one at C17. The energetic center at C3 can have negative or positive polar characters, according to the presence of oxygen or hydroxyl. The e...
-Characteristics of Sterols
Characteristic of the structure of this group of steroids is the presence of a hydroxyl at C3 and a long chain bond at C17. Through the hydroxyl, the center at C3 has a nucleophilic character. This is...
-Steroids With A Two Carbon Chain. Luteoids. Corticoids
Among the most important steroids are those having a two carbon chain fixed at C17. Two groups, the luteoids and corticoids, appear directly related to allopregnane hydrocarbon, the steroid polycyc...
-Glucuronic And Sulfuric Anions
Urine specimens that contain abnormal oxidizing substances show significant amounts of glucuronic and sulfuric acid compounds. (Note 18) The analysis of the conditions under which these two substan...
-Influence Exerted By Sex Upon Lipidic Balance
The influence exerted by the sex of the organism upon lipidic balance was brought to our attention by a curious effect seen when cholesterol was administered in an ether oil solution to rats. Only the...
-Influence Upon Lipidic Balance Exerted By Other Physiological Factors
The study of the role of lipids in various physiological functions was made indirectly for the most part, using the tests previously mentioned which were interpreted in terms of dualistic patterns. Th...
-Effects Of Lipoids On Viruses
The antagonistic effects of positive and negative lipids were evident in the study of their action upon viruses. Generally, agents with a positive polar group appeared to create favorable conditions f...
-Effects Of Lipids On Microbes
The antagonistic effects of the two groups of lipids upon microbes were investigated. As an example, we will mention here the characteristic changes in Bac. anthracis treated with polyunsaturated fatt...
-Effects Of Lipids On Complex Organisms
Morphological Changes—The same level separation was used in the study of the effects of lipids on complex organisms. Acting at chromosomal levels, lipids led to the appearance of monstrosities. Variou...
-Effects Of Lipids On Complex Organisms. Continued
Intestines—The influence of lipids upon intestinal function is marked by the same antagonism between the two groups of agents. Oral administration of large amounts of fatty acids, especially higher un...
-Mechanism Of The Lipidic Biological Activity
The analysis of the changes induced by lipids has emphasized certain characters which appear of capital importance for the understanding of the biological intervention of these substances. In one kind...
-Amino Acids
Amino acids have been separated into groups based upon their effects at different levels. The first group includes the simple amino acids. In these members the portions of the molecule which are added...
-Chapter 7. Defense
The recognition that multiple factors are responsible for abnormal conditions, and that these factors can be systematized according to the concepts presented above, throws new light on a specific aspe...
-Diphasic Phenomenon
As a noxious factor, we used an intravenous injection of killed microbes or of a colloidal suspension of a metal. Within a few minutes, a group of changes occurred. They were revealed through a series...
-Prolonged Hemoshock
Inability of the organism to resolve the noxious intervention through the mechanism involved in the diphasic phenomenon leads to abnormal prolongation of one phase or another. If it is unable to destr...
-Antiheterogeneous Reaction
Although, in the prolonged lipidic stage, a certain specificity for particular antigens can be recognized, the antiheterogeneous response in general represents rather a nonspecific effort of the organ...
-Coagulant Antibodies
The first group of antibodies have a characteristic property. Together with the antigen, on which they fix with a degree of specificity, they form highly energetic complexes. This is manifest in a mar...
-Allergic Reaction
The generic term allergic is reserved for the entire group of processes in which a coagulant antibody takes part. The reaction now against the antigen antibody complex is a typical antiheterogeneous...
-Lipido Proteic Antibodies
Analysis of allergic antibodies indicates that they have two constituents, lipids and proteins. Electrophoretic analyses reveal that they are displaced mostly as beta globulins. Experiments show that ...
-Defense And Hierarchic Levels
The above changes represent, in a schematic manner, what happens when a noxious agent acts directly or indirectly upon blood. The same basic patterns of defense, the substances used and the processes ...
-Organization And Defense
Going beyond the defense reaction in its general aspect, that is, independent of the place in the organization where the characteristic processes occur, we considered it in relation to hierarchic orga...
-Affinity Of Antigens
In the defense processes, another factor intervenes to produce differences between responses at different levels—the special affinity of antigens for various cells, tissues or organs. This affinity wi...
-Hydrolysis Products
We tried thus to utilize the products resulting from the breaking down of body constituents or of other materials in order to induce through their administration, the appearance of the second defense ...
-Allergic Precipitates
The injection of killed typhoid microbes agglutinated by a specific serum was followed by rapid production of immune antisera. The serum of rabbits injected with these mixtures prevents a lethal condi...
-Infectious Diseases. Toxic And Allergic Conditions
In infectious disease the antigen is a micro organism which may be a virus, microbe, protozoa, mycet, etc., or even a product elaborated by a microorganism. The response of an organism to the presence...
-Diphtheria
We considered diphtheria, because of its characteristic short incubation time, to be a typical primary toxic disease. This is also confirmed by the curative effect of its immune serum. However, the di...
-Typhoid and Tetanus
Typhoid, as seen in humans, is an allergic condition with an incubation period obligatory longer than 6 days. However, in experimental animals the same microbe induces a condition with a short incubat...
-Rabies, Syphilis And Tuberculosis
Under all circumstances, rabies needs an incubation time of more than 5 days. From our point of view, therefore, it has to be considered an allergic condition. When the rabies virus was passed repeate...
-Streptococcal Infections
Erysipelas and many other streptococcic infections appear as primary toxic diseases with a short incubation. Active immune sera in sufficient amounts injected in time give good results. Often a marked...
-Immunological Defense Against Cells And Tissues. Heterogenization Of The Transplants
It is known that the introduction in a normal subject of cells or tissues from an animal of another species or even a transplant from the same species will induce the appearance of defense processes. ...
-Seventh Day Manifestations In Trauma
We have studied these defense reactions for trauma, the degree of intensity of the trauma indicating the extent of the exogenous heterogenization. Very intensive trauma can produce a lethal superacute...
-Immunological Problems In Cancer
We used the data obtained from the analysis of the defense process against cells and tissues in the study of the immunological problem of cancer. The different cancerous hierarchic entities, as define...
-Grafts In Humans
The grafting of cancerous cells in normal humans usually leads to the appearance of a growing tumor which (315) after a period of days, almost always suffers the same fate as a moderately heterogeneou...
-Metastases
The relative independence in the loss of the defense capacity of different entities would explain one of the most baffling problems of cancer—why certain cancers tend to metastasize to certain organs ...
-Immunological Therapeutic Approach
The fact that effective defense resources are present at a higher level does not mean that they inevitably will act at a lower level. This view of the abnormal immunological processes in cancer has...
-Chapter 8. The Correlation Between The Basic Concepts
There is a clear interrelationship between the four basic concepts previously discussed which permits us to consider them together and to establish a unified viewpoint. For all four can be seen to rep...
-Chapter 9. Shock
In spite of the progress realized in the last decade, shock remains one of the most challenging problems in medicine. That lipids have a critical role in shock pathogenesis seems clear from a long ter...
-Shock Mechanism
We saw one primary correlation between the three clinical types of shock in the fact that sometimes one type is followed by another. Super acute shock, if not lethal, may be followed by acute shock wh...
-Fatty Acids And Sodium Chloride In Shock
We noted that in all three types of shock, abnormal fatty acids can be found. A study of the role of these fatty acids permitted us to further understand the mechanism involved in these three types of...
-Experimentally Induced Shock
The hypothesis that the three types of shock are caused by the intervention of the same factor—abnormal fatty acids—has been further confirmed experimentally. The cellular changes that characterize su...
-Chapter 10. Radiation
The study of the effects produced by irradiation upon all biological entities has resulted in the accumulation of a large amount of data. Being unsystematized, this information has helped but little t...
-Irradiation In Vitro
a) Radiation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro induces a conjugation of their double bonds, which increases quantitatively with the intensity of the radiation. This has been shown by spectral an...
-Irradiation In Vivo
d) Irradiation of the body of normal animals killed by decapitation, under ether anaesthesia, produces small amounts of conjugated fatty acids. In early experiments, different organs obtained from sla...
-Local Effects Of Radiation
f) We completed the studies of the effects of radiation upon fatty acids in vivo by considering them at the local tissue level. The first requirement was to establish a radiation procedure which would...
-Lipids And Radiation Burns
g) The appearance of conjugated fatty acids as an effect of radiation has posed the problem of the role of these abnormal fatty acids as intermediary agents in the biological changes induced by radiat...
-Role Of Anti Fatty Acids and Adrenals In The Biological Effects Of Radiation
The study of the biological effects of radiation also has revealed an important role for anti fatty acid agents. The intervention of these substances in the physiopathological processes that occur in ...
-Direct Action Of Radiation
o) In spite of the importance of fatty acids and anti fatty acids, they represent only one part of the mechanism through which radiation acts. The direct and indirect action of radiation on other cons...
-Radio Therapy
The above considerations appear important in the radiotherapy of tumors. The tissular and systemic changes related to the intervention of fatty acids, especially when these changes are sufficiently in...
-Chapter 11. Problems In Cancer
New insights into many pathological problems—and those of cancer in particular—are offered by the concepts we have been discussing. Let us take, for instance, the problem of just what cancer is. Class...
-Cancer Diagnostic Tests
This view puts the problem of diagnosis of cancer in a new light. The recognition of a cancerous condition by itself, although important, has little clinical meaning. The presence of cells with cance...
-Experimental Carcinogenesis
The problem of carcinogenesis appears in a new light when cancer is considered under the concepts presented above. Classically, the experimental induction of cancer is judged successful only if the re...
-Twin Formation
We have considered the existence and importance of these twin formations as indications of energetic activity in the course of studies on electronic molecular arrangements. In a molecule, an alterna...
-Nitrogen Mustard Derivatives
The most representative and better studied substances of this group are the nitrogen mustard derivatives, characterized by the 2-haloethyl amine group (Fig. 107) attached to a radical which can be ali...
-Epoxide Carcinogens
A similar condition is also found in the epoxide carcinogens. Carcinogenic activity has been recognized for substances having two epoxide centers in close proximity in the molecule. The epoxide center...
-Synjugated Formations
The study of various carcinogens has permitted us to recognize and relate to complex carcinogenic activity another energetic influence exerted by two or more double bonds when present in a parallel re...
-Viruses And Cancer
More than fifty years ago, Borrel presented his hypothesis of viral origin of cancer based primarily on analogies. Since then, although an enormous amount of material on this subject has accumulated, ...
-Virus' Plural Activity
The capacity of a broad scale virus to induce an invasive tumor in a short time through plural activity at different levels has been related to its richness in lipids. Its analysis makes us suspect th...
-Virus And The Host
This concept of plural activity explains the relation between tumor genesis and destruction induced by viruses. Often neoplastic infection and destructive infection are induced by the same virus. ...
-Virus And Lipoids
In studying the influence exerted by lipoids upon viral activity, we could show that the presence of free fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated, induced changes opposite to those induced by the anti...
-Virus And Lipoids. Continued
The plurality of localizations of viruses also can be related to affinities of mutated agents for different cells. The experiments of Gross (105), which show the possibility of separating out of the s...
-Allotropic Resonance Forms
It must be accepted that, originally, it was the intervention of allotropic resonance forms which permitted the appearance of new forms able to respond well to the environmental changes. The phylogene...
-Lipids And Carcinogenesis
As we have seen above, the recognition of the fact that a series of successive changes take place in carcinogenesis has invalidated the concept that in order to consider a substance active in this fie...
-Intervention Of Psychological Factors In Cancer Pathogenesis
The role of psychological factors in the pathogenesis of cancer, although still obscure, has been of increasing interest in recent years. Various theoretical considerations (i.e. the relationship betw...
-Chapter 12. Pharmacodynamic Activity
In our research, we have investigated the pharmacodynamic activity of a series of substances in terms of the physiopathological concepts discussed above: the level of organization at which they act, t...
-Fatty Acids. Saturated Fatty Acids
The lipoidic character in this homologous series starts with the five carbon valeric acid, although caproic acid is the first lipoidic member found in animals. The role of the saturated fatty acids in...
-Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Of the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid is the most widely encountered in nature. As previously noted, monoethenoids have a group of 9 carbons either toward the carboxyl or methyl end of the molecu...
-Acid Lipidic Fractions
Bearing in mind the role of acid lipidic constituents in the physiology of various biological entities, preparations containing these fractions were obtained. Tissues, organs, organisms, and organic p...
-Abnormal Fatty Acids
Because of the role of abnormal fatty acids in the pathogenesis of the offbalance type D, particularly related to radiation, a study was made of preparations of acid lipids obtained from abnormal tiss...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Bixine
In the same group of fatty acids we can place bixine, a member of the polyterpene family with 9 conjugated double bonds which we obtain through saponification of the seeds of Bixa orellana and have st...
-Alpha Hydroxy Fatty Acids
Alpha hydroxy fatty acids were obtained by fixing an OH at the carbon adjacent to the carboxyl. Some of these acids exist in nature—in significant amounts in the brain and skin, and in very small amou...
-Halogenic Compounds Of Fatty Acids
The study of changes in lesions where abnormal fatty acids are present has shown the importance of fixation of chloride ions in these substances. Considering its place in the periodic chart, chlorine ...
-Lipoids With Other Negative Polar Groups
Lipoaldehydes: With a carbonyl as polar group, the lipoidic properties appear with propanal in the homologous series of the aliphatic aldehydes. With the carbonyl less dissociated than the carboxyl, t...
-Lipoids With Thiol Groups
Mercaptans: According to the systematization of lipoids presented above, a thiol group, acting as a polar group, will form a lipoid when bound to an energetically preponderant aliphatic or cyclic nonp...
-Hydro Persulfides
Another sulfur compound, so called sulfurized oil, in which sulfur and fatty acids appear to form a hydropersulfide, (Note 7) was tested. This hydropersulfide preparation, although it exhibited no i...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Thiosulfates
We investigated thiosulfates with the intention of studying agents which, in addition to a manifest reduction effect, would act through bivalent sulfur liberated in the body. The elimination of part o...
-Alpha Thio Fatty Acids
In other studies, we tried to introduce sulfur into the fatty acid molecule, this time changing the polar group itself. With the sulfhydryl replacing the hydroxyl of the carboxyl group, a bivalent neg...
-Relationship To Sulfur Metabolism
The study of lipoids with sulfur posed the problem of the relationship between their structure and biological activity. We mention this here because it not only explains the influence exerted by these...
-Selenium Lipoids. Hexyl And Heptyl Diselenides
The influence exerted by bivalent sulfur upon oxidation processes in which fatty acids participate, served as a guide for further research. Seeking agents that would act at a still lower level of the ...
-Tetrahydronaphthalene Perselenide
The fact that in the first phases of the defense mechanism the organism uses fatty acids acting largely through their products of oxidation, has directed us—as we have seen above—to search in the ther...
-Sulfur Mustard
In studying sulfur mustard, we were first interested in its effects upon body lipids and, through them, upon the lipidic system of organisms. In inducing sulfur mustard's characteristic skin lesions, ...
-Epichlorohydrine
The importance of the relationship between the energetic centers present in alkylating agents and their ability to produce type D offbalance, led us to study a group of these substances which, at once...
-Classification Of The Elements
We have discussed previously the method used to classify the elements in accordance with their predominant biological intervention. The place of the elements in the periodic chart, which establishes t...
-Classification Of The Elements. Continued
This relationship, which is also critical for the understanding of the pharmacology of the elements, can be summarized in the following table: Amount of Element at the Proper Level ...
-Magnesium
Among offbalance D inducing elements of the II A series of the periodic chart, we first studied magnesium, which belongs to the metazoic compartment and thus, is related to the sea as original environ...
-Calcium
The biological activity of calcium, another member of the II A series and a D inducing element belonging to the cellular level, also is of interest. In its absorption by grass from the soil, Ca par...
-Copper
Copper, from the IB series and another anti A element of the cellular level, appears indispensable for the synthesis of heme of catalase. A deficiency of copper results in reduced activity of this enz...
-Manganese And Cobalt
Two other elements of the cellular compartment have appeared interesting. Manganese by intervening as a catalyst in processes resulting in an activation of oxygen, indirectly manifests D inducing char...
-Chapter 13. Pharmacodynamic Activity. Part Two. Anti Fatty Acid Group
Parallel to investigation of agents capable of correcting offbal ances of type A, attention was directed to agents that might influence the opposite offbalance, type D. Since fatty acids are involved ...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Glycerol
Glycerol is the most ubiquitous fatty acid binding substance in nature. We attempt to explain this fact on the basis of glycerol's structure and the special biological role it confers. We have seen th...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Glucose and Glycerophosphoric Acid
The pharmacological activity of glycerol has raised the question of the relationship between this substance and glucose since some of the manifestations induced by glycerol could be obtained with gluc...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Sterols
A third group of natural constituents, which act as anti fatty acid agents is composed of sterols, which are absorbed and circulated bound to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Except in brain and red cells...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Corticoids
The study of the defense of the organism against fatty acids focusses attention once again on the adrenals whose constituents appear to be part of the natural defense mechanism. To date, around 30 dif...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Synthetic Anti Fatty Acids. Butanol
Analysis of the natural anti fatty acid agents has revealed the importance of their positive polar groups. And this has guided us in attempts to obtain synthetic agents with anti fatty acid effects. ...
-Pharmacodynamic Activity Of Higher Alcohols
The study of aliphatic alcohols has shown that only few members of this homologous series, beginning with butanol and ending with octanol, have an effect upon the s.d.c. pH. For octanol, only half of ...
-Lipoalcohols With Energetic Centers In The Nonpolar Group
We also studied other alcohols with energetic centers in their nonpolar group. From various ethenic fatty acids, we prepared the corresponding alcohols by reducing the carboxyls to primary alcohols th...
-Lipamines
Theoretically, it was to be expected that lipids with an amine as polar group would have a marked anti fatty acid action. We studied several of these substances from the standpoint of their influence ...
-Procaine
In this group of agents we studied procaine. We became especially interested in procaine after we had seen some cases of ulcerations due to varicose veins healed in a few days with only two intra arte...
-Biological Action Of Elements. Sodium
With the recognition that elements act biologically in two opposite directions, we became interested in those with anti D character, capable of intervening in offbalance D. We studied the direct actio...
-Biological Action Of Potassium
This same rule would explain the distribution of potassium, another element of the same series. Potassium is the principal anti D cation for the cellular compartment, as it is one of the principal con...
-Biological Action Of Iron
Iron, a member of the VIII series and an anti D agent belonging also to the cellular level, is of special interest. Its form of activity as cytochrome oxidase or hemoglobin has facilitated the underst...
-Biological Action Of Zinc, Mercury and Bismuth
Zinc intervenes with a certain specificity in one group of metabolic changes, those related to carbohydrates. Both pancreas A cells, which manufacture glucagon, and B cells which produce insulin, co...
-Biological Action Of Arsenic and Iodine
Arsenic, from the same VA series, belongs to the cellular compartment. Its manifest A inducing or anti D effect was noted in all compartments if the amount administered was high enough. It is interest...
-Biological Action Of Chlorine, Fluorine And Bromine
We have noted previously the capacity of chloride ions to bind fatty acids. The bond represents the first step in abnormal metabolism of sodium chloride. In a second step, sodium forms alkaline compou...
-Biological Action Of Oxygen
Oxygen, an agent with a negative anti A character, at the organism level, acts like an anti fatty acid agent at the lower tissular level. For that reason, we will discuss it here. At the beginning ...
-Biological Action Of Peroxidases and Antioxidants
It has been previously noted that hydroperoxides resulting from the oxidation of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids are found normally in the organism, but peroxides appear only under abnormal cond...
-Chapter 14. Therapeutic Approach. Biologically Guided Therapy
The studies previously described have identified many factors involved in the pathogenesis of abnormal conditions and have shown that there are similar factors which also govern the pharmacological ac...
-Criteria For Biologically Guided Therapy
We have discussed the different symptoms and analytical changes with dualistic character encountered in pathological conditions. At various stages, all were considered as potential criteria for guided...
-Therapeutic Applications In Conditions Other Than Cancer
From the beginning of this study, manifestations, clinical and analytical, present in a variety of abnormal conditions, have appeared to conform to the basic physiopathological concepts presented abov...
-Therapeutic Applications In Abnormal Local Acid Base Manifestations and Pain
Pain, itching, vertigo and dyspnea are symptoms of many conditions often far apart etiologically. We have seen that, according to our research, these symptoms are related to an acid base abnormality a...
-Therapeutic Applications In Trauma
A particularly interesting application of the method described above is in the treatment of pain related to traumatic lesions. The study of wounds from the standpoint of the offbalance present has rev...
-Therapeutic Applications In Burns
The pain of burns has been successfully treated with higher alcohols such as butanol, heptanol or polyunsaturated alcohols. However, here the problem is not so simple since pain is only one, and not t...
-Therapeutic Applications In Vertigo
Another interesting application of the same therapeutic method has been in otological conditions. B. Welt has made a stimulating contribution to the study of ear conditions in terms of the pathogenic ...
-Therapeutic Applications In Hearing Impairment
Deafness remains the most important problem in otology despite good results recently obtained with surgical procedures such as fenestration and stapes mobilization. Since deafness results from long ev...
-Therapeutic Applications In Arthritis
The analysis of the pattern of pain has shown that often in rheumatoid arthritis the pattern is alkaline, while in osteoarthritis, it is acid. Comparison of variations in pain intensity with changes i...
-Therapeutic Applications In Connective Tissue Conditions
We have discussed previously the hypothesis that corticoids actively intervene in the synthesis of an entire group of substances in the organism. The energetic formation between C11 and C21 of these c...
-Therapeutic Applications In Hemorrhage
In studying hemorrhage, it seemed necessary first to define precisely the conditions under which this important episode occurs, as we did for pain, itching, etc., since the course of hemorrhage, and p...
-Antihemorrhagic Agents. Butanol
In 1943, during research studies concerning the pharmacological activity of glycerol on abnormal foci, its hemorrhagiparous effect appeared as a serious handicap. Various hemostyptic substances were t...
-Antihemorrhagic Agents. Butanol. Part 2
Experimental Research on the Hemostyptic Effect: In a series of studies we sought to find the mechanism by which butanol controls hemorrhage. In an investigation carried out in our laboratory, M. Bier...
-Antihemorrhagic Agents. Butanol. Part 3
However, correlation with another biological effect could be noted. All the substances with hemorrhagiparous effect, also produce a convulsive effect if administered in sufficiently high doses. The co...
-Allergic Conditions
Allergic conditions, which as seen above, are related to the defense mechanism, also have been integrated into the general therapeutic approach. This has largely permitted us to apply to such conditio...
-Arteriosclerosis
One of the most important medical problems from all points of view— pathogenic, therapeutic and even social—since it still represents the chief direct cause of death in most civilized societies, is th...
-Arteriosclerosis. Continued
We could find thus that organs of old animals, perfused with saline to wash them from their blood, are richer in fatty acids and poorer in sterols than those of young individuals. The cellular lipidic...
-Chapter 15. Therapeutic Approach To Cancer
One of the ultimate aims of our research has been to try to utilize in cancer the knowledge obtained from investigations of the general problems of pathology and therapy. Encouraged by the results of ...
-Placenta Extracts Cancer Treatment
These experiments led us to try an extract obtained from placenta autolysates which, in our opinion at the time, would reproduce, up to a point, some of the conditions present in these experiments. Hu...
-Cod Liver Oil Fatty Acids And Sterols Cancer Treatment
At the same time, progress in our research had led us to recognize, in addition to dualism in the pathogenesis of many manifestations, the special role played by lipids. In 1938, we began to use two g...
-Acid Lipidic Fractions And Unsaponifiable Cancer Treatment
The development of the concept of dualistic pathogenic intervention of two groups of lipids led us to a treatment employing these two types of lipid constituents of the body chosen according to the ch...
-Acid Lipidic Fractions And Unsaponifiable Cancer Treatment. Continued
Similar deleterious effects were seen with acid lipid preparations obtained from organs when their administration apparently was at variance with the pattern present. W. S., 56 years old, had a car...
-Groups Of Agents Cancer Treatment
Parallel to these researches on fatty acids, the use of agents with positive polar groups also underwent changes. As previously mentioned, it appeared increasingly clear that no single agent could be ...
-Mercaptans Cancer Treatment
Other substances with lipoidic character but with a polar group different from the carboxyl were tested. Mercaptans, as lipoids with a thiolic negative polar group, were used. In 1942. we started to s...
-Sulfurized Oil Cancer Treatment
During the years that followed, we tried to achieve results similar to those obtained with ethyl mercaptan by using other agents with bivalent sulfur. The one most commonly used was the so called sul...
-Thiosulfates Cancer Treatment
We also utilized sodium thiosulfate in many patients where symptoms such as pain, vertigo, itching, etc., could be related to a local acid pattern. In these specific cases, the results were generally ...
-Thiosulfates Cancer Treatment. Continued
Mrs. E. H.—In April 1947, at the age of 46, this patient had a right radical mastectomy. The pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma, Grade III, with metastases to axillary lymph nodes. (Fig. 158) A...
-Hydronaphthalene Persulfides Cancer Treatment
The exceptionally good results obtained with mercaptans in treating cancer in humans could only partially be reproduced by the different agents with bivalent sulfur in the polar group we tested. In ad...
-Butanol, Glycerol Cancer Treatment
During the period when mercaptans and other sulfur containing agents were being studied, attention also was centered on butanol in the group of anti fatty acid agents. While butanol's effect upon pain...
-Butanol, Glycerol Cancer Treatment. Continued
By January 1944, however, pain had recurred and the patient was again confined to bed most of the time. X ray studies showed metastatic involvement in practically every thoracic vertebrae, especially ...
-Conjugated Fatty Acids Cancer Treatment
In 1947, we started therapeutic trials of conjugated fatty acids, first using eleostearic acid, the conjugated triene obtained from tung oil, administered orally or parenterally. The effects upon pain...
-Heterogeneous Agents Cancer Treatment
Because of the organism's defense against the fatty acids with which it comes in contact under normal and abnormal conditions, more heterogeneous agents were sought. We first resorted to the alpha hyd...
-Selenium Preparations Cancer Treatment
We have previously noted the considerations which led us to study lipoidic compounds containing bivalent selenium. The compound used in clinical research was hexyldiselenide, a lipoid with an -Se Se- ...
-Selenium Preparations Cancer Treatment. Continued
Fig. 188. Anteroposterior view of the chest of the patient A.B. after ten months of treatment with hexyldiselenide. At the beginning of February, the mass in the right lower lobe was almost entirel...
-Tetralin Perselenide Cancer Treatment
The good effects obtained with persulfides on one hand, and with selenium on the other, have led us to investigate the corresponding compound—tetraline perselenide. With its low toxicity, the compound...
-Radiation And Chemotherapy Cancer Treatment
Parallel to the guided chemotherapy, the idea of mixed radio- and chemotherapy has led us over the years to several tentatives. In one of them, in collaboration with Dr. L. Goldman on a larger scale, ...
-Level Chemotherapy
In recent years, the course of our research has been directed parallel toward the precise application of available agents as well as finding new substances. For it has become increasingly evident to u...
-Chapter 16. Present Form Of Cancer Treatment
The therapeutic measures against cancer which have evolved thus far out of the pathogenic and pharmacodynamic concepts described in these pages have proved, as we have shown above, to be useful. All a...
-Present Form Of Cancer Treatment. Continued
The preparations and usual doses are: Propionic adlehyde: 10% sol.—for oral administration, used from 50-1000 mgr. daily; for parenteral administration: 2% sol. in saline. Epichlorohydrin: 0.5% ...
-Conduct Of Cancer Treatment
If the patterns of the different tests and clinical manifestations are concordant, concerning the offbalance present, the agents chosen are from the respective group. Special attention is given howeve...
-Notes. Chapter 1, Note 1. Subnuclear Organization
The analysis of the available data concerning subnuclear particles shows that while an unsuspected number of different particles are progressively discovered, no satisfactory relationship between them...
-Chapter 2, Note 1. C N-C N
As far back as 1905, Kossel has had indicated the existence for the important alkaline aminoacids, arginine and histidine, of the C N-C N group, found also in the nitrogen containing bases of nucleic ...
-Chapter 2, Note 2. Distribution Of Potassium And Sodium
As mentioned above, potassium is the cation of the cytoplasm, the secondary part of cells, while sodium is the cation of the secondary part of the metazoic compartment, that is of the fluids of this c...
-Chapter 2, Note 3. Social Hierarchic Organization
The organization of nature with the characteristic hierarchic structure so evident in the biological realm, has suggested a similar structure in social organization. All the factors which were seen...
-Chapter 3, Notes. Precancerous Lesions, Non Invasive Cancer and Abnormal Amino Acids
Chapter 3, Note 1. Precancerous Lesions Precancerous lesions were identified especially in cases in which cancerous lesions were induced and where a manifest polycentricity of lesions was present. ...
-Chapter 4, Note 1. Physiological And Pathological Pain. Physiological Pain
Physiological pain may be defined as a specific sensorial sensation induced in normal tissues when external stimuli are applied with sufficient intensity to endanger tissue integrity. Because pain may...
-Pathological Pain
Pathological pain differs profoundly from physiological pain. It is a psychic response to impulses originating in tissues which are abnormal either because of damage produced by external stimuli or be...
-Chapter 4, Note 2. Blood Titrimetric Alkalinity And Urinary Ph
The important role of the kidney in regulating the acid base balance of the blood has been described (209) and a general relationship between daily acid excretion and plasma bicarbonate has been recog...
-Chapter 4, Notes 3-4. Acid Pattern Of Pain And Lactic Acid, Itching
Chapter 4, Note 3. Acid Pattern Of Pain And Lactic Acid We have investigated the relationship between pain of acid pattern and the appearance of lactic acid resulting from abnormal metabolism of ca...
-Chapter 4, Note 4. Itching
Although we were especially concerned with pathological itching, we also became interested in physiological itching, especially in its relationship to sensorial sensations in general. Physiological it...
-Chapter 4, Notes 5-6. Nasal pH and Wheal Resorption
Chapter 4, Note 5. Nasal pH Nasal pH was measured using a portable Beckman pH meter and a glass electrode small enough to penetrate deep into the nose. In a research made with N. Buchanan it was fo...
-Chapter 4, Note 6. Wheal Resorption
Interesting information could be obtained by analyzing the absorption of fluid injected intradermically in various subjects, and correlating the results with the existence of metabolic offbalances. We...
-Chapter 4, Note 7. Eosinophiles
The role of the blood as the secondary part of the entity organism has explained many of the peculiarities of its cells. Aside from the phagocytary functions that can be considered as a particular for...
-Eosinophiles. Continued
Granule maturation, which corresponds to the acidophilic character, seems to be the essential condition for the lytic intervention of these cells. In the physiological role of eosinophiles, an importa...
-Chapter 4, Notes 8-9. Total Blood Potassium, Sulfhydryl Determination
Chapter 4, Note 8. Total Blood Potassium For a large scale investigation—requiring as many as one hundred determinations a day—the technique of separating red cells from plasma appeared to be impra...
-Chapter 4, Note 9. Sulfhydryl Determination
The catalytic effect of sulfhydryl groups on the oxidation of sodium azide by iodine was first described by F. Raschig (214), and F. Feigl (217) utilized it to develop the most sensitive qualitative t...
-Chapter 4, Notes 10-11. Calcium In Urine, Urinary Surface Tension (ST)
Chapter 4, Note 10. Calcium In Urine 1 cc. of the urine was diluted in a test tube with 8 cc. of distilled water and the optical density of the mixture was determined. To the mixture, 1 cc. of a 1%...
-The Measurement Of Urinary Surface Tension With The Urotensiometer
Design And Calibration Of The Urotensiometer In order to obtain direct readings of the urinary surface tension values with a maximum error of 1 dyne/cm., the previously discussed factors w...
-The Nature Of The Intervening Substances
The existence of several values for the surface tension of urine has suggested the intervention of different substances in the determination of surface tension. We used the study of the changes induce...
-Time Of The Day And Urinary Surface Tension
Urinary surface tension measurements were made in several normal subjects at hourly intervals. In order to eliminate the influence exerted by exercise and food, the subjects were kept in bed for a few...
-Chapter 4, Notes 12-13. Urinary Oxidore Duct Ion Potential, Oxidoreduction Potential Of The Urine
Chapter 4, Note 12. Urinary Oxidore Duct Ion Potential For the study of the oxidoreduction potential of the urine, we used a Beckman pH meter with platinum electrodes. We measured the potential at ...
-Chapter 4, Note 14. Peroxides In The Urine
The hypothesis of the existence of a phase oxygen of offbalance D led us to study the appearance in urine of products resulting from abnormal oxidation. We were especially interested in the existenc...
-Chapter 4, Note 15. Index Of Excretion And Of Retention
One of the most important aspects of the relationship of an entity to its environment is given by its intake and output. The concept of hierarchic organization with emphasis on the individuality of th...
-Chapter 4, Note 16. Water And Nitrogen Metabolism
The analyses of different urine samples have shown that the amount of water present in urine seems to influence indirectly its constitution. It could thus be seen that while very diluted urine, corres...
-Chapter 5, Note 1. Second Day Wound Crust Ph
The metabolic processes characterizing abnormal foci have been investigated in various ways. One method was devised in order to study the acid base changes which take place within abnormal foci create...
-Alcohols and Acid Lipoids
The role of the relationship between polar and nonpolar groups appeared very clear in the study of the series of aliphatic alcohols. We have considered separately a group of agents extensively used...
-Other Agents' Influence Upon The S.D.C. pH
We investigated some of the hormones that are often used clinically and found that the biological antagonism between male and female sex hormones is also apparent in their influence upon the s.d.c. pH...
-Chapter 5, Note 2. Potassium
We have seen in Chapter 2, Note 1 how the place occupied in nature by sodium and potassium can explain their peculiar distribution in the body. Proper to the earth crust, one of the environments throu...
-Potassium And Offbalances
We tried to utilize the information concerning the relationship between the two types of offbalances and the changes in potassium distribution between cells and metazoic fluids, in order to recognize ...
-Potassium And Sodium
The changes in the amount of potassium could be connected to its relationship to sodium, and further interpreted in the frame of the hierarchic organization. Both are members of the same series in the...
-Chapter 6, Notes 1-3. Definition Of The Lipids
Chapter 6, Note 1. Definition Of The Lipids According to Bloor: Lipids may be defined as a group of naturally occurring substances consisting of the higher fatty acids, their naturally occurring c...
-Chapter 6, Note 4. Fatty Acids Break Down
In a work hypothesis of the biological breakdown of a long chain molecule for caloric metabolism, we consider two factors as being of capital importance: 1) that the result be an even carbon number ch...
-Chapter 6, Notes 5-6. Position Of The Double Bond In Monoethenoids
Chapter 6, Note 5. Position Of The Double Bond In Monoethenoids The comparative analysis of the principal naturally occurring mono ethenic fatty acids has shown a curious configuration due to the p...
-Chapter 6, Note 7. Essential Fatty Acids
A strong positive character of the carbon of the carboxyl results from its bond to two oxygens. This induces an alternating polarity, with the odd carbons positive in the chain. On the other hand, the...
-Chapter 6, Note 8. Fixation Of Halogens On Conjugated Double Bonds
The fact that the fixation of halogens at the conjugated double bonds occurs in two steps would explain the relative difficulty in a reverse reaction. As seen for butanediene, the halogen ions are fir...
-Chapter 6, Note 8b-c. Spectral Analysis
In collaboration with Carlos Huesca Mejia and Priscilla Teitelbaum, we studied several thousand samples of lipid preparations through spectral analysis, in ultraviolet and first portion of visible lig...
-Chapter 6, Notes 9-10. Twin Formation. Arachidonic Acid-Sterol Relationship
Chapter 6, Notes 9. Twin Formation The odd number of carbons in a cyclic molecule represents one of the conditions which always would result in the appearance of a twin formation, since the alterna...
-Chapter 6, Notes 11-12. Steroids Deriving From Arachidonic Acid
The study of the relationship between steroids and certain fatty acids led us to the hypothesis, according to which some steroids are derived from fatty acids themselves. Although the synthesis of cho...
-Chapter 6, Notes 13-14. Luteoid Function
It appears that the luteoid pattern can be correlated to a specific aspect of the energetic picture of this substance—the presence of two relatively strong nucleophilic centers in the characteristic o...
-Chapter 6, Note 15. Relationship Between Corticoids
Corticoids can be viewed in terms of changes taking place in the general metabolism in the organism. In the evolution of these steroids, a process of oxidation would intervene at the principal energet...
-Chapter 6, Note 16. The Template Hypothesis
Figure 257 shows the template formation in cortisone, which extends from C11 to C21. Each one of these six carbons will attract a carbon from the radical in front of it. The energetic character of eac...
-Chapter 6, Note 17-19. Adrenal Defense Index
E. F. Taskier in collaboration with the author, has studied the intervention of adrenals in the defense against various fatty acids. (231) It is known that the adrenals have an important role in th...
-Chapter 6, Note 20. Glucuronic Acid-Mechanism Of Coupling
The analysis of urine specimens containing peroxides, also has revealed significant amounts of glucuronic acid compounds. We utilized a slightly changed Tollens technique for the dosification of glucu...
-Chapter 6, Notes 21-24. Paraplegia Induced By Cholesterol, Adipose Cells And Sulfur Mustard, Lipids
Chapter 6, Notes 21. Paraplegia Induced By Cholesterol Male and female rats, weighing approximately 250 grams, were injected with 5 cc. of 10% cholesterol only partially dissolved in a mixture of 3...
-Chapter 6, Note 25. Surface Tension Of Urine In Old Age (237)
During the course of a study of the biological changes in old age, the renal excretion of surface active substances was found to be considerably below the levels seen in younger age groups. These find...
-Chapter 6, Note 26. Environmental Influences
In most of the experiments in animals, the analytical data followed over a certain length of time show variations which cannot be explained by the experiment itself. A direct relationship of such vari...
-Chapter 6, Notes 27-28. Environmental Influences Upon Urinary Surface Tension
The morning urinary surface tension was measured in four groups of 40 rats each: one group of 20 males, one of 20 females of the white Wistar strain, one group of 20 males and one of 20 females of a b...
-Chapter 6, Note 29-30. Age, Lipoids And Tumor Transplants, Temperature, Lipids And Viral Infection
Chapter 6, Note 29. Age, Lipoids And Tumor Transplants The influence of age of a host upon the different manifestations through the intervention of sterols and lipoacids can be seen in the followin...
-Chapter 6, Notes 31-32. Youth And Viruses. Changes In The Viruses Induced By Lipids
Chapter 6, Note 31. Youth And Viruses Another interesting aspect of the changes induced in viruses by lipoids with an alcoholic polar group, especially sterols, is the relationship to age of the ho...
-Chapter 6, Notes 33-37. Microbes, Phages And Lipids, Temperature And Tetrahymena
Chapter 6, Note 33. Microbes, Phages And Lipids We have investigated the influence of various insaponifiable fractions upon the relationship between microbes and bacteriophages. Coli bacilli, of a ...
-Chapter 6, Note 38. Liver Regeneration
The ability of rats to regenerate almost 3/4 of their liver in a short time has made them valuable for the study of the factors which intervene in cellular multiplication and differentiation. A study ...
-Chapter 6, Note 39-41. Lipids And Convulsions. Lipoids And Coma. Cardiac Rhythm
Chapter 6, Note 39. Lipids And Convulsions The administration of insaponifiable fractions of placenta or organs sometimes produces no observable manifestations in rats and mice, except an exophthal...
-Chapter 6, Note 42. Some General Considerations Of The Role Of Lipids In Blood Physiology. Lipids And Red Cells "In Vitro"
Among the first experiments concerning the influence exerted by sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro, were those concerned with the effects upon red cells. We have noted that when citrated...
-Red Cells, Plasma And Lipids
As most of these changes did not occur with the red cells in suspension in different isotonic saline solutions, we have attempted to explore the relationship of plasma to red cells and lipids. This wa...
-Lipids And Blood Oxygen Transport
One of the most interesting observations and one of the simplest in vitro experiments that indicates these opposite effects of sterols and fatty acids is their influence upon the oxidation processes i...
-Lipids And Blood Serum Cholesterol
Further study of the relationship between blood and lipids has permitted the recognition of several peculiarities concerning the blood serum which when related to abnormal conditions, acquires a speci...
-Chapter 7, Notes 1-4. Analyses Used For The Study Of Hemoshock, Morphine And Shock
Chapter 7, Note I. Analyses Used For The Study Of Hemoshock Besides body temperature and blood pressure, the following blood analyses were made: complete blood count; coagulation time; clot retract...
-Chapter 7, Notes 5-7. Lipids And Immunity. Microbes Treated With Lipids
Chapter 7, Note 6. Lipids And Immunity Three groups of five rabbits each, of the same sex and weight, were injected intravenously on two consecutive days with the same amount of a suspension of kil...
-Chapter 9, Note 1. Hemoglobinuria A Frigore (244)
Certain information about shock which has emerged from the study of a rare condition is worth noting here. When a patient with paroxysmal hemoglobinuria—also known as both hemoglobinuria a frigore and...
-Hemoglobinuria A Frigore. Continued
An analysis of these cases indicated two striking characteristics. One was the time sequence of the three diphasic changes which was uniform for all attacks in all subjects. The second was that althou...
-Chapter 9, Note 2-7. Lipids And Rouleaux And Sludge Formation. Dark Color Of The Blood In Shock
Chapter 9, Note 2. Lipids And Rouleaux And Sludge Formation Human blood obtained through venous puncture was mixed in the syringe with 1/10 of its volume of 1.5% sodium citrate, passed into several...
-Chapter 10, Notes 1-3. Oxalic Index
The need to have quantitative information about the amount of double bonds present in the organism or in its lipoacids has led to a method of analysis based on the fact that molecular breakdown or fis...
-Chapter 10, Note 4. Radiation Induced Offbalances
Through the routine analytical technique used for the study of the offbalances, we studied the changes occurring in a group of 56 subjects with different conditions, submitted to radiotherapy alone. W...
-Chapter 11, Note 1. Carcinogenic Activity Of Urethane
The interesting research of Berenblum has brought an important contribution not only for the largely debated role of urethane as carcinogen, but also for the problem of carcinogenesis in general. The ...
-Chapter 11, Note 2. Constitution Of Viruses
It is superfluous to emphasize the interest with which viruses are being studied from all points of view. Their role in carcinogenesis has placed them in the limelight of cancer research, and any cont...
-Chapter 12, Note 1. Lipids and Cytolytic Activity of Sera (245, 246)
The fact that cancer cells are found circulating in the blood without inducing metastases throughout the body, as might be expected, has made various workers investigate the means by which the organis...
-Chapter 12, Notes 2-3. Fatty Acids Transportation In The Blood
It appeared especially interesting to study the distribution and transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body in view of the fact that parenteral administration of the acid lipidic fraction of...
-Chapter 12, Note 4. Quenching Action And Anti Carcinogenic Effect Of Conjugated Fatty Acids
We have investigated the influence exerted by different fatty acids, conjugated and nonconjugated, upon various carcinogens. In a first group of experiments we studied this influence in vitro, and cho...
-Conjugated Fatty Acids And Quenching
Nonconjugated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, mixed fatty acids from body liver oil and cod liver oil have a limited quenching action. Conjugated dienes such as is...
-Conjugated Fatty Acids And Induced Carcinogenesis
We have investigated the influence exerted by the fatty acids—conjugated or not, and their mixture, upon the induction of tumors by carcinogens. From the various experiments, some were eliminated, eit...
-Chapter 12, Notes 5-6. Lipids And Tumor Chlorides
We submitted groups of mice grafted with DBA mammary adenocarcinoma, to treatment with various lipoacids or positive lipoids preparations. After ten days of treatment the tumors were removed and analy...
-Chapter 12, Note 7-9. Hydropersulfides
The existence of different bonds between unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen led us to study different bonds similarly occurring between the same fatty acids and sulfur, the second member of the oxygen...
-Chapter 13, Notes 1-5. Glycerol And Chills, Convulsions
Chapter 13, Note 1. Glycerol And Chills In one of a group of severely burned subjects, who were at that time under our care and had been experiencing several chills a day, an injection of glycerol ...
-Chapter 13, Notes 6-7. Treatments In Successive Generations
The relatively short survival time of animals bearing transplanted tumors has been a handicap for the study of the influence exerted by many agents. Effects requiring some time before they can be indu...
-Chapter 13, Note 8-11. Toxicity Of Butanol In Humans
A group of advanced schizophrenic patients (221) were given 500 cc. of a 6% solution of n butanol in saline intravenously, the entire amount being injected in 30 minutes. The only manifestation which ...
-Chapter 14, Notes 1-3. Observations Of Dr. E. Stoopen
From a series of observations published by E. Stoopen (184), we chose the following: Right trigeminal neuralgia for the past 10 years, with short, sharp pains. Neither food intake, nor time of day...
-Chapter 14, Notes 4-6. Treatment Of Post Traumatic Conditions
Of special theoretical and practical interest has been the treatment of traumatic conditions, especially those following surgical procedures. The recognition of the role of fatty acids acting at diffe...
-Chapter 15, Note 1. Radio And Chemotherapeutical Essays
Though carried out only at the beginning of these studies, the application of this method, conducted by Leonard B. Goldman, M.D. in 1950 and 1951 appears interesting. As part of this investigation, li...
-Bibliography
1. HEITZ, E.: Chromosomes structure. Z. Indudt Abslamm. u. Vererblehre 70:402, 1935. 2. GEITLER, L.: Grundriss der Zytologie. Berlin, 1934. GEITLER, L.: Chromosomenbau. Berlin, 1938. 3. NEBEL, B...
-Bibliography. Part 2
66. BURCHENAL, J. H.: The newer nitrogen mustards in the treatment of leukemia. Radiology 50:494, 1948. BURCHENAL, J. H., BURCHENAL, J. R., and JOHNSTON, S. F.: Chemotherapy of leukemia III. Further s...
-Bibliography. Part 3
137. ROBINET, L.: B. de I'Academie Nationale de Medecine 103:440, 1930. 138. ROBIN ET, L.: B. de I'Academie Nationale de Medecine 111:501, 1934. 139. TROMP, S. W., and DIEHL, J. C: Experientia 1...
-Bibliography. Part 4
214. RASCHIG, F.: Berichte 48, 2088. 215. du NOUY, P. L.: Surface equilibria of biological and organic colloids. Am. Chem. Soc. Monograph No. 27, New York, 1926. du NOUY, P. L.: J. Gen. ...







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