It must be accepted that, originally, it was the intervention of allotropic resonance forms which permitted the appearance of new forms able to respond well to the environmental changes. The phylogenetic development of different phylae, species, strains and even individuals, can be seen as resulting from such different solutions for the same problems. When, however, an allotropic resonance form appears, during ontogenetic development, it results in an anomaly. At the level of genes or chromosomes, it produces a mutation or monstrosity. At a still lower level, such allotropic resonance forms may result, not in monstrosities or mutations, but in cancerous entities. The concept of cancer as a hierarchically organized disease accords with this view of allotropic resonance forms. A first cancerous entity would, therefore, develop when an allotropic resonance form occurs at a low level of the organization. Under favorable conditions, the allotropic entity would develop hierarchically, passing on through the different levels of the organization, and realizing allotropic chromosomes, nuclei, cells and tissues.

In order to have an invasive cancer, it would thus be necessary that an entire succession of favorable conditions be present insuring the development of a continuous line of hierarchic cancerous entities. These favorable conditions can occur spontaneously at each level, and both cancerous and normal entities may have many allotropic forms. Carcinogenesis would correspond to the creation of these favorable conditions, and, as seen above, it can take place at the different levels of the organization. The result is a hierarchic succession of the persisting forms of the allotropic series of respective cancerous entities.

The long time usually necessary for a cancerous condition to appear accords with this mechanism. The intervention of any external factor considered capable of inducing, by itself, the development of cancerous allotropic forms, has to be regarded as favoring the conditions, necessary for the persistence and development of the succession of allotropic cancerous entities. (304)

This would also explain the relationship between hereditary factors and carcinogenesis. Just as the individual has the capacity to realize the successive allotropic forms, so a strain or even a species can inherit the tendency to develop such allotropic forms. This explains the persistence of mutation forms. It applies to the development of strains with high or low incidence of spontaneous tumors. It would also explain the vast differences among different species and strains in their response to carcinogens.

The concept of cancer as corresponding to a series of allotropic resonance forms at the successive hierarchic levels is of importance in terms of the intervention of external factors. Such environmental influences can establish conditions favorable for the development of allotropic forms at successive levels, permitting the progression of the allotropic line. The inequality of their action at different levels accounts for the big differences seen between the various carcinogens. It is under this special aspect that we saw above the important problem of induced carcinogenesis.

The relationship between carcinogenesis and the defense mechanism can be understood in terms of the differences in defense capacities of allotropic and normal entities. From the study of cancerous and normal subjects, it appears that the latter have the capacity for defense responses. It appears highly possible that the characteristic of the "normal" resonance forms resides in their ability to resolve noxious interventions. The allotropic forms lack this ability. The loss of the defense mechanism at various levels, which is characteristic of cancer, can be regarded, up to a certain point, as being the result of the intervention of allotropic resonance forms, which would appear to be fundamentally inadequate to oppose the hierarchic progression of cancer. Incapable of responding with the full defense mechanism when confronted by continuous noxious interventions, cancerous entities use the simpler, primitive defense forms, and especially the lipidic prolonged form. This lipidic predominance represents the principal factor in producing the actual manifestations of cancer, with their dualistic nature.

The intervention of noxious factors in carcinogenesis is well known. Trauma and microbial viral infections in particular are such factors. Co carcinogens such as croton oil, and some solvents such as benzene and toluene, can be considered noxious factors. (295)

This view of a plurality of factors intervening together to realize the hierarchically complex condition of cancer has another value. It helps to reconcile various explanations of the pathogenesis of cancer, each attributed to a different etiological factor, and each based on incontestable evidence. According to our view, with the possible exception of the broad scale virus, which leads to the appearance of cancer cells in a couple of days, in all other cases a number of factors of different nature intervene. To resonance changes, would be added chemical, viral, metabolic, hormonal or defense influences, at the same or at different levels, in order to provide the necessary circumstances for cancer development. The fact that, regardless of the nature of agents used to induce them, cancers, once induced, differ very little or not at all makes plausible the hypothesis of plural exogenous factors acting to bring about the necessary favorable conditions.

The above presentation—a resume of our research—must still be considered to be a working hypothesis.

Other aspects of the cancer problem have been analyzed anew in the light of the concept of pathogenesis discussed above.