Chapter 4, Note 12. Urinary Oxidore Duct Ion Potential

For the study of the oxidoreduction potential of the urine, we used a Beckman pH meter with platinum electrodes. We measured the potential at the pH of the sample and also at pH 7. For this purpose, the platinum and the respective calomel electrodes used for these measurements were introduced into the beaker of the Fisher titrimeter together with the electrodes of the potentiometer. After stirring, the pH of the sample and its oxidoreduction values were measured. The pH then was brought to 7 with HC1 or NaOH solution, and the value of the oxidoreduction potential was again measured. Four values were thus obtained: the original pH, the titrimetric acidity or alkalinity, and the oxidoreduction values at the original pH and at pH 7. Figures 229 and 230 show a sample of such curves.

Chapter 4, Note 13. Oxidoreduction Potential Of The Urine

We have tried to determine the oxidoreduction potential of urine samples by using the change of a color indicator in its leuco base. We chose toluidine blue which, with a rH2 of 14, is at the middle of the scale of the rH2 values. In order to eliminate two of the important factors which intervene in the oxidoreduction potential—differences in pH and temperature —we used a fixed temperature and very low pH. The degree of oxidoreduction potential was determined by the time necessary to obtain the discoloration for a standard amount of the color indicator. The reactive used was a solution of toluidine blue in a normal solution of hydrochloric acid. The amount was chosen so as to give a discoloration at 100 seconds for the normal individual. 1.5 cc. of a saturated solution of toluidine blue in alcohol was added to 100 cc. of n/10 hydrochloric acid. 1 cc. of this reagent was added to 4 cc. of urine in a test tube kept for a while in boiling water. The time necessary for the discoloration was marked. Values as low as 3-4 seconds or as high as above 420 seconds were seen. A high oxidoreduction potential inducing a rapid discoloration was found to correspond to a pattern of the offbalance type A while a low discoloration was seen to correspond to the pattern of type D. Figures 231 and 232 show two such curves. We used this test for many years as main analyses to determine the existing offbalances. (220)

The curve of the oxidoreduction potential of the urine measured electrically

Fig. 229. The curve of the oxidoreduction potential of the urine measured electrically. The curve of the measurements made directly on the urine (E1) show big variations which are smaller if the pH of the sample is brought to 7 (E2). In a case of cancer of the breast, the curve remains constantly below the 0 value.

Curve of the oxidoreduction potential values of the curve brought to pH 7 of a case of cancer of the breast

Fig. 230. Curve of the oxidoreduction potential values of the curve brought to pH 7 of a case of cancer of the breast, shows values around or above the 0 value.

Curve of urinary oxidoreduction values in a case of carcinoma of the breast with multiple bone metastases

Fig. 231. Curve of urinary oxidoreduction values in a case of carcinoma of the breast with multiple bone metastases. The values are established as the time necessary to obtain the reduction at 100C and with a pH around 2, of a solution of toluidine blue so chosen as to have 100 seconds as the average value for groups of normal individuals. In this case the values remain fixed low below 100 seconds, corresponding to a pattern, of the offbalance type A.